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Compensation for those who cannot fast

Question:
 

One elderly man wants to compensate the missing fasts of past months of Ramadan. He can not fast because off disease and old age. He knows one very needy person but to go to him every day for giving money is problematic. Can he give all volume of money for that poor man for food at once?
 

Answer:
 

A person who is unable to fast due to ill health is excused from fasting in the month of Ramadhaan. If he recovers, it will be obligatory on him to make Qadha of the missed fasts by fasting. However, if his ailment continues and he has no hope of recovering, then he is obligated to make up for it by giving a monetary compensation to the poor.

This monetary compensation is called Fidyah in Arabic. The Fidyah amount per fast is 1.6kgs of wheat or barley or its value.

The Fidyah for the entire month of Ramadaan may be given to a needy person in any of the following three ways:

a) Over a period of thirty days

b) To thirty people in one day.

c) The entire amount may also be given to one person in one day.

(Raddul Muhtaar, Vol: 2, Pg: 422, al-Maktabah at-Tijariyyah)
 

( وللشيخ الفاني العاجز عن الصوم الفطر ويفدي ) وجوبا ولو في أول الشهر وبلا تعدد فقير كالفطرة لو موسرا

( قوله وبلا تعدد فقير ) أي بخلاف نحو كفارة اليمين للنص فيها على التعدد ، فلو أعطى هنا مسكينا صاعا عن يومين جاز

NB. Fidyah is different from Kaffarah of fasting. Kaffarah becomes obligatory when a person intentionally breaks his fast for no valid reason by either eating, drinking or engaging in intercourse with his wife during the days of Ramadaan. The Kaffarah is that a person will have to fast for 60 days consecutively. If he cannot manage, then he should feed 60 poor people the average type of meal. i.e.; 1.6kg of wheat or barley or its value to sixty poor people or one poor person over 60 days. He cannot give the entire amount to one person in one day. (Raddul Muhtaar, Vol: 3, Pg: 480, al-Maktabah at-Tijariyyah)
 

كما ) جاز ( لو أطعم واحدا ستين يوما ) لتجدد الحاجة ( ولو أباحه كل الطعام في يوم واحد دفعة أجزأ عن يومه ذلك فقط )

( قوله : دفعة ) أي ، أو بدفعات ، وقوله بدفعات أي ، أو بدفعة كما أفاده في البحر ، فهو من قبيل الاحتباك ، حيث صرح في كل من الموضعين بما سكت عنه في الموضع الآخر ( قوله : وكذا إذا ملكه ) أي لا يجزئ إلا عن يوم واحد ، وفصله عما قبله لأن في التمليك خلافا بخلاف الإباحة فافهم ( قوله : لفقد التعدد إلخ ) علة للمسألتين .


And Allah knows best
 

Suhail Tarmahomed (Mufti)
 

Checked and Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Fatwa Department

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