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FAQ on Qadha (missed) Salah (Prayers) Qaza-e-Umri

 appointment missed

When any one of you omits the prayer due to sleep or he forgets it, he should observe it when he remembers it [Muslim].


FAQ on Qadha (missed) Salah (Prayers) Qaza-e-Umri

Question: Is there any evidence that Salah missed be made up?

Absolutely!

حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ فَضَالَةَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، جَاءَ يَوْمَ الْخَنْدَقِ بَعْدَ مَا غَرَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ، فَجَعَلَ يَسُبُّ كُفَّارَ قُرَيْشٍ قَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَا كِدْتُ أُصَلِّي الْعَصْرَ حَتَّى كَادَتِ الشَّمْسُ تَغْرُبُ‏.‏ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ وَاللَّهِ مَا صَلَّيْتُهَا ‏”‏‏.‏ فَقُمْنَا إِلَى بُطْحَانَ، فَتَوَضَّأَ لِلصَّلاَةِ، وَتَوَضَّأْنَا لَهَا فَصَلَّى الْعَصْرَ بَعْدَ مَا غَرَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ، ثُمَّ صَلَّى بَعْدَهَا الْمَغْرِبَ‏.‏

Sayyidina Jabir bin `Abdullah (RA) narrated that on the day of Al-Khandaq (the battle of trench.) `Umar bin Al-Khattab came cursing the disbelievers of Quraish after the sun had set and said, “O Allah’s Messenger (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) I could not offer the `Asr prayer till the sun had set.” The Prophet (Nabi Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, “By Allah! I, too, have not prayed.” So we turned towards Buthan, and the Prophet (Nabi Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) performed ablution and we too performed ablution and offered the `Asr prayer after the sun had set, and then he offered the Maghrib prayer.[Bukhari]

Question: Some say that when a prayer is missed by mistake it shouldn’t be made up?

Incorrect!

حَدَّثَنِي حَرْمَلَةُ بْنُ يَحْيَى التُّجِيبِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي يُونُسُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حِينَ قَفَلَ مِنْ غَزْوَةِ خَيْبَرَ سَارَ لَيْلَهُ حَتَّى إِذَا أَدْرَكَهُ الْكَرَى عَرَّسَ وَقَالَ لِبِلاَلٍ ‏”‏ اكْلأْ لَنَا اللَّيْلَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَصَلَّى بِلاَلٌ مَا قُدِّرَ لَهُ وَنَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَصْحَابُهُ فَلَمَّا تَقَارَبَ الْفَجْرُ اسْتَنَدَ بِلاَلٌ إِلَى رَاحِلَتِهِ مُوَاجِهَ الْفَجْرِ فَغَلَبَتْ بِلاَلاً عَيْنَاهُ وَهُوَ مُسْتَنِدٌ إِلَى رَاحِلَتِهِ فَلَمْ يَسْتَيْقِظْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلاَ بِلاَلٌ وَلاَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ حَتَّى ضَرَبَتْهُمُ الشَّمْسُ فَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَوَّلَهُمُ اسْتِيقَاظًا فَفَزِعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏”‏ أَىْ بِلاَلُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ بِلاَلٌ أَخَذَ بِنَفْسِي الَّذِي أَخَذَ – بِأَبِي أَنْتَ وَأُمِّي يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ – بِنَفْسِكَ قَالَ ‏”‏ اقْتَادُوا ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَاقْتَادُوا رَوَاحِلَهُمْ شَيْئًا ثُمَّ تَوَضَّأَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَمَرَ بِلاَلاً فَأَقَامَ الصَّلاَةَ فَصَلَّى بِهِمُ الصُّبْحَ فَلَمَّا قَضَى الصَّلاَةَ قَالَ ‏”‏ مَنْ نَسِيَ الصَّلاَةَ فَلْيُصَلِّهَا إِذَا ذَكَرَهَا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ قَالَ ‏{‏ أَقِمِ الصَّلاَةَ لِذِكْرِي‏}‏ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ يُونُسُ وَكَانَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ يَقْرَؤُهَا لِلذِّكْرَى ‏.‏

Sayyidina Abu Huraira (RA) reported that when the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) returned from the expedition to Khaibar, he travelled one night, and stopped for rest when he became sleepy. He told Bilal to remain on guard during the night and he (Bilal) prayed as much as he could, while the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam)   and his Companions slept. When the time for dawn approached Bilal leaned against his camel facing the direction from which the dawn would appear but he was overcome by sleep while he was leaning against his camel, and neither the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) nor Bilal, nor anyone else among his Companions got up, till the sun shone on them. Allah’s Messenger (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam)   was the first of them to awake and, being startled, he called to Bilal who said: Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  I may my father and mother be offered as ransom for thee, the same thing overpowered me which overpowered you. He (the Holy Prophet, then) said: Lead the beasts on: so they led their camels to some distance. The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) then performed ablution and gave orders to Bilal who pronounced the Iqama and then led them in the morning prayer. When he finished the prayer he said: When anyone forgets the prayer, he should observe it when he remembers it, for Allah has said:” And observe the prayer for remembrance of Me” (Qur’an. xx. 14). Yunus said: Ibn Shilab used to recite it like this:” (And observe the prayer) for remembrance.” [Muslim]

Question: But is there a clear command in Qur’aan and Sunnah to make up missed prayers?

Absolutely!

وَحَدَّثَنَا نَصْرُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْجَهْضَمِيُّ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا الْمُثَنَّى، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ إِذَا رَقَدَ أَحَدُكُمْ عَنِ الصَّلاَةِ أَوْ غَفَلَ عَنْهَا فَلْيُصَلِّهَا إِذَا ذَكَرَهَا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَقُولُ أَقِمِ الصَّلاَةَ لِذِكْرِي ‏”‏ ‏.‏

Qatada reported it on the authority of Anas b. Malik (RA) that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: When any one of you omits the prayer due to sleep or he forgets it, he should observe it when he remembers it, for Allah has said:” Observe prayer for remembrance of Me.” [Muslim]

Question: But I have heard that the Hanbali Madhab and Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (RA) said that a person doesn’t have to make up missed prayers?

Your assertion is entirely incorrect. In Al-Mugni which is one of the most authoritative books of Hanbali Madhab Imam Ibn Qudaamah (RA) states that not only making up prayers is obligatory but it is obligated to make them up in the order it was missed because the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) prayed (missed) Asar and then prayed Maghrib i.e. in order and this has been narrated from Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (RA) many times.

مسألة : قال : ومن ذكر أن عليه صلاة وهو في أخرى ، أتمها ، وقضى المذكورة ، وأعاد التي كان فيها إذا كان الوقت مبقى وجملة ذلك ، أن الترتيب واجب في قضاء الفوائت . نص عليه أحمد في مواضع ، قال في رواية أبي داود فيمن ترك صلاة سنة : يصليها ، ويعيد كل صلاة صلاها وهو ذاكر لما ترك من الصلاة . وقد روي عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنه ما يدل على وجوب الترتيب ، ونحوه عن النخعي ، والزهري ، وربيعة ، ويحيى الأنصاري ، ومالك ، والليث ، وأبي حنيفة ، وإسحاق

 

Question: What have Scholars said about making up missed prayers in the Shaf’ae Madhab?

Unanimous consensus of opinion amongst Ulama that missed Salah need to be made up as quoted by Imam Nawawi (RA) and this is also the Shaf’ae position.

اجمع العلماء الذين يعتد بهم علي ان من ترك صلاة عمدا لزمه قضاؤها وخالفهم أبو محمد على ابن حزم فقالا لا يقدر علي قضائها ابدا ولا يصح فعلها ابدا قال بل يكثر من فعل الخير وصلاة التطوع ليثقل ميزانه يوم القيامة ويستغفر الله تعالي ويتوب وهذا الذى قاله مع أنه مخالف للاجماع باطل من جهة الدليل وبسط هو الكلام في الاستدلال له وليس فيما ذكر دلالة أصلا

Imam Nawawi r.a says , ” There is a consensus among all scholars who matter that whoever deliberately misses the prayer is obliged to make it up. Abu Muhammad Ali Ibn Hazm contravened them in this saying that such a person can never make up the prayer and that doing so can never be valid. What he has said, besides being a violation of scholarly consensus, is untrue from the standpoint of evidence, and despite a prolonged discourse to prove his contention, what he mentions is devoid of anything that bears it out.

Question: What is the position of the Maliki Madhab?

إِنَّنِىٓ أَنَا ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنَا۟ فَٱعۡبُدۡنِى وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ لِذِڪۡرِىٓ

[20:14] Surely, I am Allah (SWT). There is no god but Myself, so worship Me, and establish Salah for My remembrance.

Imam Qurtubi Maliki (RA) in his Tafseer (Qurtubi) lists 7 Masail (issues) pertaining to this verse and then agrees that and states the consensus of opinion of all Scholars that missed prayers are obligated to be made up.

فأما من ترك الصلاة متعمدا ، فالجمهور أيضا على وجوب القضاء عليه ، وإن كان عاصيا إلا داود . ووافقه أبو عبد الرحمن الأشعري الشافعي ، حكاه عنه ابن القصار . والفرق بين المتعمد والناسي والنائم ، حط المأثم ؛ فالمتعمد مأثوم وجميعهم قاضون . والحجة للجمهور قوله تعالى : أقيموا الصلاة ولم يفرق بين أن يكون في وقتها أو بعدها . وهو أمر يقتضي الوجوب . وأيضا فقد ثبت الأمر بقضاء النائم والناسي ، مع أنهما غير مأثومين ، فالعامد أولى . وأيضا قوله : من نام عن صلاة أو نسيها والنسيان الترك ؛ قال الله تعالى : نسوا الله فنسيهم و نسوا الله فأنساهم أنفسهم سواء كان مع ذهول أو لم يكن ؛ لأن الله تعالى لا ينسى وإنما معناه تركهم و ما ننسخ من آية أو ننسها أي نتركها وكذلك الذكر يكون بعد نسيان وبعد غيره . قال الله تعالى : من ذكرني في نفسه ذكرته في نفسي وهو تعالى لا ينسى وإنما معناه علمت

Question: What is the position of the Hanafi Madhab?

 

وفي الحجة الاشتغال بالفوائت أولى وأهم من النوافل إلا السنن المعروفة وصلاة الضحى وصلاة التسبيح والصلوات التي رويت في الأخبار فيها سور معدودة وأذكار معهودة فتلك بنية النفل وغيرها بنية القضاء ، كذا في المضمرات (الفتاوى الهندية و حاشية الطحطاوي على مرارقي الفلاح ص 447 العلمية )
You should make an earnest effort to estimate the amount of Salahs to make up. To do this, you can commence calculating from the time you became Baligh (mature); however, you should also estimate how many Salahs you might have performed already in order to subtract that number from the total number of Salahs since the age of your Bulūgh (maturity). You should stop performing the Qadha Salahs when you are relatively certain that you have completed them all.

Question: Do I need to make up all missed prayers or just the ones which are Fardh & Waajib?

Only the ones which are Fardh and Waajib which in the Hanafi Madhab are as follows:

 

1. 2 Rakaat of Faj’r

2. 4 Rakaat of Dhohar
3. 4 Rakaat of Asar
4. 3 Rakaat of Marghrib

 

5. 4 Rakaat of Isha

 

6. 3 Rakaat of Wit’r

 

Question: How come your list has skipped the 2 Sunnah of Faj’r? Do I not make it on the same day?

We have discussed this issue with our local Imam who is a Senior graduate of Darul-uloom Saharunpur (India) and in his opinion Sunnah of Faj’r don’t need to be made up.

Question: What is Qaza-e-Umri?

Qaza-e-Umri in Urdu means estimating all the prayers in one’s lifetime and then making them up. Note that only the Fardh and Waajib prayers need to be made up.

Question: I have missed a lot of prayers is there a quicker way to pray them?

There are some short cut methods on the Internet which suggest skipping Sunnah in prayers and thus shortening it but such a prayer would be devoid of blessings and lessen the reward.

As far as praying qadha umri salah, the Fuqahaa have mentioned an easy method to offer missed salahs. They explain that one should perform one qadha salah before or after every fardh salah. In this way, one can keep track of the amount of completed qadha prayers with ease, while this method will also ensure that too much time will not be taken in making up missed prayers.

I have missed my many (prayers) Namaz and now I want to read my all qaza Namaz (prayers). What advice and method you will give me to read my qaza Namaz (prayers)?

Make an estimate of how many months’ or years’ qaza are on your shoulders, then for every day you have to make qaza of 20 rakats – seventeen of farz and three of WITR WAJIB; there is no need for qaza of sunnats.  Start by making an intention of the first salah you missed, e.g. first Fajr, first Zuhr, etc.  When that is done the one after it will become the first, and so on.  Whenever you have free time, make wudhu and keep doing your qaza – one friend of mine used to do 300 rakats a day until he completed his whole life’s qaza.  May Allah make it easy for you and accept it from you.

Note: you can’t pray any namaz at three times – during sunrise, sunset and at zawaal.  After Fajr and Asr nawafil are not allowed; qaza are permitted.  However, pray them secretly, not in front of people’s eyes, because not praying salah is a sin and by doing qaza in front of people you bring that into the open, whereas you should never disclose your sins to people.

Salah Rakaat (To be made up) Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly 5 Years 10 Years
Faj’r 2 2 14 60 730 3650 7300
Dhohar 4 4 28 120 1460 7300 14600
Asar 4 4 28 120 1460 7300 14600
Maghrib 3 3 21 90 1095 5475 10950
Esha 4 4 28 120 1460 7300 14600
Wit’r 3 3 21 90 1095 5475 10950
Total 20 20 140 600 7300 36500 73000

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