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Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi)



Imaam Abu Hanifah’s (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) name was Nu’man ibn Thaabit. He was born in the year 80 A.H. and passed away in the year 150 A.H. [1]

Allamah Ibn Katheer (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) (d. 774 A.H.) writes about Imaam Abu Hanifah: “… one of the four Imaams of the mazaahib that are followed. He was the first amongst them in demise, as he had also witnessed the era of the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum). He saw Anas ibn Maalik (Radhiyallahu Anhu). It is related that he also met other Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) as well. Some even mention that he narrated from seven of the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum). And Allah Ta’ala knows best.”

Allamah Zahabi (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) (d. 778 A.H.) states: “He (Imaam Abu Hanifah) met Anas (Radhiyallahu Anhu) on a number of occasions when he visited them in Kufa.” [2]

Piety and Virtues

Allamah Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) states: “It has been recorded about Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) that he performed Salaatul Fajr and Esha with the same wudhu for forty years … and it is also recorded that he completed seven thousand khatams (complete recitals) of the Quraan in his lifetime (Rahmatullahi Alaihi).” [3] 

Imaam Shaafi’ee (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) says that on one occasion Imaam Maalik (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) was asked: “Did you meet Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi)?” Imaam Maalik (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) replied: “Yes, Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) was a man who if he claimed that a certain pillar was made of gold, he would present sound and unbreakable proofs to establish his claim.” [4]

Shareek (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) says: “Imaam Abu Hanifah was a person who used to observe silence for lengthy periods, and was a man of great intelligence.” [5]

Ibn Ishaaq Samarqandi says that Imaam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) said: “Imaam Abu Hanifah used to complete a khatam of the Qur’an every night in one rakaat.” [6]

Mis’ar bin Kidaam says: “One night I went into the musjid where I saw a man performing salaah. I was taken aback by his melodious recitation of the Holy Qur’an. When he reached the seventh juz of the Qur’an, I thought he may go into ruku any moment but he didn’t until he recited one third of the Qur’an. I though he may go into ruku at the termination of half the Qur’an, but he continued until he recited the entire Qur’an in one rakaat. Upon closer inspection, I realised it was Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi).[7]

Abu Muayyid Khawaarizmi (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) narrates that Abdullah bin Mubaarak (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) said: “On one occasion a few goats were stolen in Kufa. On hearing of this, Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) enquired about the average maximum age of a goat. When he was informed that goats normally live for up to seven years, he abstained from eating goat meat for seven years.” [8]

Imaam Abu Hanifah was once asked: “How did you acquire this high position in Deen and the great treasures of ‘ilm? Imaam Abu Hanifah replied: “I never mised with the knowledge that Allah Ta’ala had blessed me with. Instead I always shared it with the people, and I never regard it to be below my dignity to seek knowledge from the Ulama. [9]

His Mazhab

Allamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) states in his kitaab ‘Al-Meezaan’, “I was blessed with a vision from the side of Allah Ta’ala wherein I had seen the mazaahib of the Imaams in the form of streams. I saw the mazaahib of Imaam Abu Hanifah, Imaam Maalik, Imaam Shaafi’ee, Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal (Rahimahumullah) as large streams flowing with force, while the mazaahib of the other Imaams of that era which had become extinct were small streams which later on dried up and had become hard like rocks. From the four Imaams, the Imaam whose stream was the longest was Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), followed by the stream of Imaam Maalik, then Imaam Shaafi’ee, then Imaam Ahmad (Rahimahumullah). The one with the shortest stream was Imaam Dawood (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), whose mazhab was discontinued in the 5th century. I interpreted this dream as reference to the duration of the time the different mazaahib will be practised upon. [10]

Glad Tidings

Hafiz Jalaalud Deen Suyooti (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) mentions that the Ulama have mentioned that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) had issued glad tidings in favour of Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) in the following Hadith. Imaam Bukhaari and Imaam Muslim narrate the Hadith from Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah (Radhiallahu Anhu) that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “Had knowledge been at the Thuraya star, then Allah Ta’ala will create a man from Persia who will acquire this knowledge.” [11]

Allamah Suyooti says that this Hadith is authentic and that it is a glad tiding in favour of Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi). [12]

Abu Yahya Al-Himmaani says that he heard Imaam Abu Hanifah say: “I once saw a dream which made me very concerned. I had seen as though I was digging up the grave of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). I then came to Basrah, and instructed a person to go and ask Muhammad bin Sireen (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) the interpretation of the dream on my behalf. Muhammad bin Sireen (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), upon hearing the dream, replied: “The one who had seen the dream will be blessed by Allah Ta’ala with the bounty of gathering the  Ahaadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) (and the knowledge of Deen, and present it to the Ummah.)” [13]


Muthanna bin Rajaa’ (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) said: “Whenever Imaam Abu Hanifah would spend on his family, he would spend the same amount in charity.” [14]

It is mentioned that Hadhrat Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) learnt that his student Imaam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) was very poor and that his mother required him to earn a living to fulfil their basic needs such as food, etc. Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) stipulated an amount of money for him, which was sufficient to meet his and his mother’s needs. [15]

Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) used to send cash to Baghdad in order to purchase goods to be sold in Kufa. The profit would be accumulated and utilised in the food, clothing and other needs of the Muhadditheen. He used to present the remainder profit to them in the form of cash. He used to tell them, “Praise Allah Ta’ala alone and not me. I have not disbursed anything from my wealth but from the wealth of Allah Ta’ala. By Allah, whatever He has bestowed upon me is your trust which He has sent to you via me.” [16]

Imaam Mis’ar bin Kidaam (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) narrates: “It was the habit of Imaam Abu Hanifah that whatever he purchased for his family, he would spend the same amount on the senior Ulama, and whenever he purchased clothing for his family, he used to buy the same amount for the senior Ulama as well. At the onset of the fruit season, whatever he intended to purchase for his family members, he would first purchase the same for the senior Ulama as much as he intended to purchase for his family. [17]

Principles Governing his Mazhab

Nooh Al-Jaami’ reports that Imaam Abu Hanifah said: “Whatever is reported from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), then we submit before it. Whatever is reported from the Sahabah, then we give it preference over the statements of others and personal logic. Whatever is reported from anyone else, then they are men and so are we. (Hence, we are not bound to accept it, instead we will employ our ijtihaad in reaching the conclusion).” [18]

His Expertise in the Field of Hadith

His expertise and proficiency in the field of Hadith can be summed up in the words of Imaam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), who himself was a great Muhaddith and the ustaad of Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal (Rahmatullahi Alaihi). He says: “Imaam Abu Hanifah had much more insight regarding authentic Ahaadith than me.” He further says: “I have not witnessed anyone more learned in the field of Hadith than Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi). [19]

Abu Muhammad Al-Haarithi narrates that Imaam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) said: “Whenever we discussed any Deeni issue with Imaam Abu Hanifah, and his contemporaries unanimously agreed to what he had to say, I would go to the Mashaayikh of Kufa to search for a clear Hadith in verification of his opinion. I would often come across two or three Ahaadith which I used to present to him in verification of his opinion. I once enquired from him regarding how he had come to know about this Hadith. He replied: “I am well acquainted with the Ahaadith reported by the Ulama of Kufa.” [20]

Abu Ya’qoob Yusuf bin Ahmad Makki narrates that Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Ibrahim Dawraqi said: “When Yahya bin Ma’een was asked about Abu Hanifah, I was listening as he replied: “He is reliable in terms of accepting Ahaadith from him. I have not heard any of the Muhadditheen portraying him to be unreliable. Look at Imaam Shu’bah that he writes to Imaam Abu Hanifah requesting him to explain a few Ahaadith, and Shu’bah is after all Shu’bah.” (In other words, in the field of Hadith, Imaam Shu’bah is of a very eminent rank.) [21]

Imaam Abu Hanifah declared that a narrator should only narrate a Hadith if he remembered it thoroughly, from the day he heard it till the day he is narrating it. [22]

Shabaabah says that Shu’bah held a favourable opinion of Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi). [23]

Khateeb Baghdaadi (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) narrates that Sufyaan bin Uyaynah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) said: “The first person who accorded me a seat of honour in the field of Hadith was Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi). When I arrived in Kufa, he openly informed the people that I am most knowledgable in regard to the Ahaadith of Amr bin Dinaar (Rahmatullahi Alahi). The people started gathering around me and I started teaching those Ahaadith to them.” [24]

Sufyaan bin Uyaynah (the Ustaad of Imaam Shaafi’ee) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) is reported to have said: “My sight has not fallen on anyone as great as Imaam Abu Hanifah. [25]

Hibbaan bin Moosa said: “We were once seated in the company of Abdullah bin Mubaarak (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) (the student of Imaam Abu Hanifah and from among the Ustaads of Imaam Bukhaari i.e. from among the narrators appearing in Bukhaari Shareef). He was dictating Ahaadith to us, when he said: “Nu’maan bin Thaabit narrated to me..”. Someone asked him, “O Abu Abdir Rahmaan, who are you referring to by this name Nu’maan bin Thaabit?” He replied, “I am referring to Imaam Abu Hanifah, who is a treasure house of ‘ilm.” Upon hearing this, some of the students terminated the copying down of this Hadith from him. Abdullah bin Mubaarak remained silent for some time, after which he remarked, “O people, how disrespectful of you! Certainly you are not aware of the status of the Imaams of Deen. Nobody is as worthy of being followed as Imaam Abu Hanifah. Indeed he was an Imaam. He was extremely pious and his reputation was untarnished. He was a very devout Aalim and Faqeeh. He explained ‘ilm with deep insight and profound understanding. He possessed unique Taqwa (i.e. Allah consciousness) that very few possess.” The narrator adds: “Abdullah bin Mubaarak thereafter swore an oath that he will not teach them for another month.” [26]

His Expertise in the Field of Fiqh

Yahya bin Ma’een (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) is reported to have said: “According to me, the most reliable and most esteemed Qiraat is the Qiraat of Hamzah while in Fiqh it is the Fiqh of Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi). I have found the predecessors to hold the same view as well.” [27]

Imaam Shaafi’ee (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) is reported to have said about Imaam Abu Hanifah: “People are entirely dependent upon Imaam Abu Hanifah in Fiqh.” [28]

When Yahya bin Ma’een was asked whether Sufyaan Thauri (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) narrated any Hadith from Imaam Abu Hanifah, he said: “Surely he narrated from him. Abu Hanifah was a very reliable narrator and most truthful in expounding the laws of fiqh. In regard to the Deen of Allah Ta’ala, he was regarded as most reliable and trustworthy.”[29]

Khatib Baghdadi (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) narrates that Abdullah bin Mubaarak (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) said: “I went to Syria to meet Imaam Auzaa’ee (Rahmatullahi Alaihi). I found him in Beirut. He asked me: “O Khurasaani, who is this bid’ati in Kufa referred to as Imaam Abu Hanifah?” I returned home and began perusing the kitaabs of Imaam Abu Hanifah all over again. I selected a few selected masaail and made a note of them. I continued this activity for three days. On the fourth day, I appeared before Imaam Auzaa’ee (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) with the book in which I made notes. He was a Muazzin of the Musjid as well as the Imaam. When he saw the book in my hand, he asked: “What book is this?” I handed the book over to him. He came across a mas’ala upon which I had written, “Nu’maan bin Thaabit says”. After calling out the Azaan, he continued studying the first part of the book while standing. He thereafter placed the book in his sleeve and performed the salaah. Once again he started reading the book until he completed it. He then asked, “O Khurasaani, who is this Nu’maan bin Thaabit?” I replied: “He is an aalim I met in Iraq.” He advised me: “He is a man of outstanding virtue from amongst the scholars. Go and attain tremendous ‘ilm from him.” I submitted: “He is the same Abu Hanifah you had prohibited me from.”[30]

A great personality in the field of Hadith like Imaam Bukhaari (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) also studied Hanafi fiqh, through which he gained expertise in the field of Fiqh. In the foreword of Fathul Baari, the commentary of Bukhaari Shareef, his own words are narrated thus: “When I was sixteen, I memorized the kitaatbs of Ibnul Mubaarak and Wakee’ and I learnt the sayings of these people i.e. the people of logic.” The people of knowledge are quite aware of the fact that Hadhrat Abdullah ibnul Mubaarak and Wakee’ bin Jarraah (referred to by Imaam Bukhaari) are both the students of Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi).[31]

Ali bin Aasim says: “If the knowledge of Imaam Abu Hanifah was weighed against the knowledge of the rest of the people of his time, his knowledge would outweigh the rest.”[32]

Hafs bin Ghiyaath (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) says: “The statements of Imaam Abu Hanifah in fiqh were extremely fine and delicate, even finer than a strand of hair. Only an ignorant person will find faults in it.”[33]

Abdullah bin Mubaarak (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) says: “Imaam Abu Hanifah was the greatest of people in fiqh.”[34]

Incidents Highlighting his Greatness

His intelligence

Wak’ee bin Jarrah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) narrates: “I was sitting in the company of Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) when a lady appeared before him and said: “My brother passed away leaving behind six hundred gold coins. However, I only received one gold coin from his estate.” Imaam Abu Hanifah asked: “Who distributed the estate?” She replied: “Dawood Tai’.” Imaam Abu Hanifah said: “You are entitled to this much only. Tell me, your brother left behind two daughters.” She replied in the affirmative. He then asked: “Did she leave behind a mother as well?”She replied , “Yes, he did.” He then asked: “Did he leave behind a wife?” She again replied: “Yes.” He then asked: “He left behind twelve brothers and one sister?” When she again replied in the affirmative, Imaam Abu Hanifah added: “The two daughters are entitled to two thirds of the estate and that amounts to four hundred coins. The mother will get one sixth which is one hundred coins, and the wife will get one eighth, which is seventy five coins. Twenty four of the remaining twenty five will go to the twelve brothers. Two coins for each one of them, and the remaining coin will be your share.”[35]

Wak’ee narrates: “I saw Imaam Abu Hanifah, Sufyaan Thauri, Mis’ar bin Kidaam, Maalik bin Mighwal, Ja’far bin Ziyaad and Ahmad Hassan bin Saalih (Rahimahumullah) present at a Walimah invitation in Kufa. The invited guests comprised of the wealthy and the poor. A man got both his daughters married to two brothers. When all the guests finally gathered to eat, the host ran out and exclaimed, “We have a huge problem.” When asked what the problem is all about, he replied: “We prefer the problem to remain confidential.” When Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi)  enquired about the problem, he said: “The problem is that last night, each brother ended up with the other brother’s wife in error.” Imaam Abu Hanifah asked: “Did both couples consummate the marriage as well?” When he replied in the affirmative, Imaam Abu Hanifah then said: “Bring both the husbands to me.” When they appeared before him, he asked each one of them, “Do you prefer to keep the woman you spent the night with?” When each of them replied in the affirmative, Imaam Abu Hanifah asked, “What is the woman’s name who spent the night with your brother?” When each of them gave him the name of the other woman, Imaam Abu Hanifah asked each one of them to utter her name and divorce her. Accordingly they issued the Talaaq. Thereafter, Imaam Abu Hanifah recited the khutbah of nikah and re-performed each brother’s nikah with the woman he slept with and he thereafter commented, “Consider this a fresh marriage all together.”

The people were quite taken aback with this action and decision of Imaam Abu Hanifah. Mis’ar bin Kidaam stood up and kissed Imaam Abu Hanifah’s forehead and remarked, “How thoughtless of the people to rebuke me for cherishing love for this man.”[36]

His Love for Brotherhood and Unity

Shaqeeq bin Ibrahim said: “I was once in the company of Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) who was on his way to visit a sick person, when another man was coming towards us in the opposite direction. When he saw Imaam Abu Hanifah, he took cover and changed direction. Imaam Abu Hanifah shouted out his name and said: “O so and so, walk in the direction you were walking in. Don’t change your direction now.” When he realised that Imaam Abu Hanifah had already seen him, he was overcome with shame and stood still. Upon reaching him, Imaam Abu Hanifah asked him the reason for avoiding him. He replied: “I owe you a long overdue amount of ten thousand dirhams which I am unable to pay. I have breached my promise of payment. I was overcome by shame when I saw you coming towards me.”

Imaam Abu Hanifah remarked: “Subhaanallah! Matters have reached such proportions that when you see me you take cover? Go, I have gifted the entire amount to you and I declare myself a personal witness to this. Remember, do not take cover when you see me around. Also, forgive me for the ill-feelings that could have cropped up in your heart against me.” Shaqeeq (the narrator of the incident) says: “This is when I was completely convinced that this man is a true saint.”[37]

Abdullah bin Bakr Ashami narrates: “En route to Makkah Mukarramah, one of the camel drivers became hostile towards me over some dispute between us. He took me to Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi). He questioned us both and both our answers were conflicting. Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) then asked: “The dispute is over what amount?” The camel driver replied: “Over forty dirhams.” Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) commented: “People have lost their dignity.” This statement really put me to shame. Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) then handed over forty dirhams to the camel driver and settled the dispute. [38]

His Taqwa

Khaarijah bin Mus’ab narrates: “When I was about to proceed for Hajj, I left my slave girl in the care of Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi). I stayed  in Makkah Mukarramah for about fourteen months and upon my return, I asked him about her character and services, etc. He replied: “He who has recited the Qur’an, preserved the Deen of the people, pointed out what is Haraam and Halaal to them, is in need of protecting himself from fitnah (temptation). By Allah, I haven’t even seen your slave girl.” I thereafter enquired from her regarding Imaam Abu Hanifah and the household chores, etc. She replied: “I have never heard of nor seen anyone like him.”[39]

Respect for his Ustaad and Serving him

Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) said: “I never stretched my legs in the direction of the house of my ustaad Hammaad bin Abi Sulaymaan out of respect for him, though his house was seven streets away from my house. [40]

A’tika, the sister of Hammaad ibn Abi Sulaymaan (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) the ustaadh of Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) says that Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) used to clean out the seeds from the cotton at her home. He used to buy the milk and vegetables and would do similar chores at her house.

At that time, who would have imagined that the servant in the house of Hammaad would one day be regarded as the master of the whole world?[41]

Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alahi) reports that the first time I met my Ustaad Hammad bin Abi Sulaymaan (Rahmatullahi Alaih), I found him to be a man of great respect and tolerance. He possessed great understanding and was endowed with the ability to easily express and convey the message of Deen to the people. I stuck to him and remained committed to his teachings. I found everything in him that I was desirous of attaining.  After remaining in his company for a lengthy period, one day he said to me: “O Abu Hanifah, all that I possessed in my heart of ‘ilm, you have acquired it.”[42]


The praise of Imaam Shaafi’ee regarding Imaam Abu Hanifah

لقد زان البلادَ ومن عليها ** إمَامُ المسْلِمينَ أبُو حَنِيفة

بأحكامِ وآثارِ وفقهٍ ** كآيَاتِ الزَّبُورِ عَلَى الصَّحِيفَة

فما بالمشرقين له نظيرٌ ** ولا بالمغربين ولا بكوفه

فَرَحْمَةُ رَبِّنا أبداً عَليْهِ ** مَدَى الأَيَّامِ مَا قُرِئَتْ صَحِيفة

The leader of the Muslims, Imaam Abu Hanifah, has beautified the cities and those who reside in it.

With laws of the Qur’an, Ahaadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the Fiqh of Deen, just like the beauty of the Qur’an over all other heavenly scriptures.

There was no one like him in the East or in the west, and nor in the city of Kufa.

So may the special mercy of Allah Ta’ala perpetually rain upon him, till the end of time as long as the Qur’an is recited. [43]

[1] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 54/56

[2] Who are the blind followers? pg. 31

[3] Ibid

[4] Siyar 534/6

[5] Siyar 535/6

[6] Ibid

[7] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 176

[8] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 207

[9] Ma’aalimul Irshaadiya pg. 217

[10] Muqaddamah Musnad Imaam Abi Hanifah pg.9

[11] This means that Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) was included in this glad tiding, though it may not have referred exclusively to him.

[12] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 56

[13] Siyar 534/6

[14] Siyar 535/6

[15] Aadabul Muallimeen

[16] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 196

[17] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 197

[18] Siyar 534/6

[19] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 119

[20] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 21

[21] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 158

[22] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 19

[23] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 351

[24] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 119

[25] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 143

[26] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 145

[27] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 158

[28] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 143

[29] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 158

[30] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 148

[31] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 9

[32] Siyar 537/6

[33] ibid

[34] ibid

[35] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 227

[36] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 220

[37] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 198

[38] Uqoodul Jumaan  pg. 200

[39] Uqoodul Jumaan pg. 205

[40] Ma’aalimul Irshaadiya pg. 172

[41] Aadabul Muta’allimeen

[42] Ma’aalimul Irshaadiya pg. 283

[43] Deewaan Imaam Shaafi’ee pg. 286

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