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Is it necessary to purchase items on Ashura to attain reward in hadith?

ashura
 

Question:

In relation to the hadeeth relating to spending on ones family on the day of Ashoora, does one purchase on the day of Ashoora itself or can one buy few days before due to work commitments, so he may give on the day?

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Rasulullah sallallahu’alaihi wasallam is reported to have said:

“Whoever expands his expenditure on his family on the day of ‘Aashura, Allah Ta’ala will inflate his sustenance for the rest of that year” (al-Bayhaqī)[i]

The Fuqahā’ have stated expenditure is not restricted to only food, rather, one may purchase clothes or any other item and it to one’s family and dependents.[ii]

To attain the reward mentioned in the ḥadīth, it is not necessary to actually purchase a brand new item on `Ᾱshūrā’ and gift it to one’s family.  Rather, one may purchase items prior to `Ᾱshūrā’ and spend it on one’s family on `Ᾱshūrā’.

Expenditure on one’s family may be done in one of two ways[iii]:

1) Tamlīk (Transfer of ownership)
2) Tamkīn (enablement)

Tamlīk refers to granting one’s family ownership of items.  This can be achieved by giving items in their physical possession or by constructive possession[iv].  Physical refers to where the person takes actual receipt of the item.  Constructive possession refers to where the owner has not taken physical receipt of the item, but it has come into his control, all rights and liabilities of the commodity are passed onto him including risk.

Tamkīn refers to enabling others to use and consume items freely.  This is more applicable to consumables like food.  By presenting food to one’s family and enabling them to consume, expenditure on one’s family will be achieved.

Thus, as long as there was transferral of ownership of the items on Ᾱshūrā’ or there was enablement, insha’Allah (Allah willing), you will be entitled to the reward mentioned in the ḥadīth.

 

And Allah Ta’ālā Alone Knows Best

Mufti Faraz Adam al-Mahmudi,
www.darulfiqh.com

 


[i]  For a detailed analysis of the authenticity of this hadith, see:

http://www.al-miftah.com/2012/12/15/ashura-spending/

[ii]  التوسعة على العيال يومَ عاشوراء مندوبةٌ في المأكل، والملابس، وغير ذلك (الهدية العلائية ص 223 دار ابن حزم)

[iii]  فَنَقُولُ طَرِيقُ إيصَالِ النَّفَقَةِ إلَيْهَا شَيْئَانِ التَّمْكِينُ أَوْ التَّمْلِيكُ (المبسوط للسرخسي ج 5 ص 181 دار المعرفة)

وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ الْمُصَنِّفُ طَرِيقَ إيصَالِ النَّفَقَةِ إلَيْهَا وَهُوَ نَوْعَانِ: تَمْكِينٌ، وَتَمْلِيكٌ فَالتَّمْكِينُ مُتَعَيَّنٌ فِيمَا إذَا كَانَ لَهُ طَعَامٌ كَثِيرٌ وَهُوَ صَاحِبُ مَائِدَةٍ فَتَمْكِينُ الْمَرْأَةِ مِنْ تَنَاوُلِ مِقْدَارِ كِفَايَتِهَا، فَلَيْسَ لَهَا أَنْ تُطَالِبَهُ بِفَرْضِ النَّفَقَةِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِهَذِهِ الصِّفَةِ فَإِنْ رَضِيَتْ أَنْ تَأْكُلَ مَعَهُ فَبِهَا وَنِعْمَتْ وَإِنْ خَاصَمَتْهُ فِي فَرْضِ النَّفَقَةِ يُفْرَضُ لَهَا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَهُوَ التَّمْلِيكُ كَذَا فِي غَايَةِ الْبَيَانِ وَظَاهِرُ مَا فِي الذَّخِيرَةِ أَنَّ الْمُرَادَ بِصَاحِبِ الطَّعَامِ الْكَثِيرِ أَنْ يُنْفِقَ عَلَى مَنْ لَا تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ نَفَقَتُهُ فَحِينَئِذٍ هِيَ مُتَعَنِّتَةٌ فِي طَلَبِ الْفَرْضِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ إذَا كَانَ يُنْفِقُ عَلَى مَنْ لَا تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ نَفَقَتُهُ فَلَا يَمْتَنِعُ مِنْ الْإِنْفَاقِ عَلَى مَنْ عَلَيْهِ نَفَقَتُهُ إلَّا إذَا ظَهَرَ لِلْقَاضِي أَنَّهُ يَضْرِبُهَا وَلَا يُنْفِقُ عَلَيْهَا فَحِينَئِذٍ يَفْرِضُ لَهَا النَّفَقَةَ اهـ.

وَظَاهِرُ مَا فِي غَايَةِ الْبَيَانِ أَنَّ النَّفَقَةَ الْمَفْرُوضَةَ تَصِيرُ مِلْكًا لِلْمَرْأَةِ إذَا دَفَعَهَا إلَيْهَا فَلَهَا التَّصَرُّفُ فِيهَا مِنْ بَيْعٍ وَهِبَةٍ وَصَدَقَةٍ وَادِّخَارٍ وَيَدُلُّ عَلَى ذَلِكَ مَا فِي الْخُلَاصَةِ لَوْ سُرِقَتْ الْكِسْوَةُ أَوْ هَلَكَتْ النَّفَقَةُ لَا يُفْرَضُ لَهَا أُخْرَى بِخِلَافِ الْمَحَارِمِ، وَلَوْ فَرَضَ لَهَا دَرَاهِمَ وَبَقِيَ مِنْهَا شَيْءٌ يُفْرَضُ بِخِلَافِ الْمَحَارِمِ اهـ. (البحر الرائق ج 4 ص 188-189)

[iv]  لِأَنَّ النَّفَقَةَ تُسْتَحَقُّ اسْتِحْقَاقَ الصِّلَاتِ لَا اسْتِحْقَاقَ الْمُعَاوَضَاتِ عَلَى مَا قَرَّرْنَاهُ، وَالصِّلَاتُ لَا تَتِمُّ إلَّا بِالْقَبْضِ وَتَسْقُطُ بِالْمَوْتِ قَبْلَ الْقَبْضِ. (المبسوط للسرخسي ج 5 ص 195 دار المعرفة)

لِأَنَّ النَّفَقَةَ صِلَةٌ فَلَا تُمْلَكُ إلَّا بِالْقَبْضِ (تبيين الحقائق ج 3 ص 55 إمدامية)

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