Some people say that among the merits of middle night of Sha’baan is that matters of people’s rizq and life & death etc are determined during this night. Is that correct??
Yes, there are some dhaeef narrations which support this view.
A verse of surah Dukhaan says:
فيها يفرق كل امر حكيم
“In it (that night) all matters of wisdom are are made distinct”
Ikrimah (student of Ibn Abbas) used to say regarding the above verse: “it is the night of 15th of Sha’baan.” However, majority of mufassireen say the reference is towards laylatu qadar.
Ataa Ibn yasaar (the freed salve of ummul mu’mineen Maymoona radiallahu anha, who was the qadhi of Madina) says “In the night of the middle of Sha’baan, a sheet is handed over to the angel of death and he is told “Extract the souls of those who’s names are written in here” A person plants trees, gets married, and builds buildings while his name is registered among those who are going to die. (Lataaiful ma’arif p165)
There is a Hadith of Aisha radiallahu anha that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam would keep lots of fasts in Sha’baan. I asked “Ya Rasulullah! I see that you fast a lot in Sha’baan? He replied “In this month, names of those to die are written down for malakul mawt. I wouldn’t like my name to be written down except while I am fasting.” Ibn rajab says this Hadith is dhaeef. It has been narrated as Mursal which more correct.
Another Mursal Hadith States: “Death times are finalised from Sha’baan to Sha’baan. To the extent that a person gets married or is blessed with a child while his name has come out among the dead”
Due to the above narrations (which are weak) there is common belief that matters are determined in Sha’baan.
However, Allah in His wisdom
Had known the things that were to happen, even before created the universe. The Hadith says:
اول ما خلق الله القلم فقال له اكتب قال ماذا اكتب قال مقادير كل شيء حتي تقوم الساعة رواه الترمذي
“The first thing Allah created was the pen. He commanded it: “Write!” The pen asked “What shall I write?” Allah replied “The measurement of everything until qiyamat commences”
The pen was inspired by Allah and it wrote everything, which was then preserved in the sacred tablet (Lawhe Mahfooz).
This shows that it’s not determined in Sha’baan. Rather it is copied from Lawhe Mahfooz and handed over to the Angels.
There are angels who guard Lawhe Mahfooz and as per instruction of Allah (set), they keep copying from there. This is why in the night of Me’raj, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam heard the inscription of the pens. (صريف الاقلام)
The Angels who are below the Sidrtul Muntahaa do not go above, and those above do not come down. So those above hand over the papers to the lower Angels. This is what could be happening in Sha’baan.
Thereafter, Taqdeer is of two types. Taqdeere mubram (fixed) and taqdeere muallaq (conditional). Allah does not change the first one however, with regards to the second one, Allah wipes out what He wills and decides what He wills.
For example one Hadith says:
لا يرد القضاء الا الدعاء و
لا يزيد في العمر الا البر رواه الترمذي و ابن ماجه
“Nothing can can repel taqdeer except Dua and nothing can increase life except being dutiful to parents”
This could mean that Dua can be so effective that Allah changes the taqdeer of a person through it, and that Allah has kept it conditional that if Abdullah looks well after his parents, he will have a lifespan of 70 years, otherwise 60 years. So based on Abdullah’s behaviour Allah can determine his fate.
There is a third writing down as well. That is in the mother’s womb. A person’s lifespan, total rizq, a’maal, and final ending are written down when the soul is breathed in the body after four months.
These are just protocols which Allah takes. We should turn our attentions towards obedience to Allah and strive in Attaining His pleasure.
On the other hand, The verse of surah Rahman says “Everyday He is in a shaan” ie busy. He raises someone, demotes or promotes, judges among people, increases rizq or decreases it. Allah is in full control of everything.
Therefore, to restrict taqdeer with Shabe bara’at would not be correct.
اللهم انا نسألك ان تجعل كل فضل قضيته لنا خيرا وان تجعل عاقبته رشدا
“Ya Allah! We beg you that whatever you judge for us should be good and it’s final ending should be of guidance. Ameen