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The shia cult and Muawiyah Radhiyallahu Anhu

Question:

Salaam Mufti Saheb(s): I wanted to ask about Shias and Muawiya/Ali (Radiyallahoanhum to both). Many Shias say that Muawiya (RA) and his successors cursed Ali during Jummah khutbah for years. Is this true, because I can find no legitimate source of this other than Shia propaganda? Also, why do Shias have such words for Muawiya (RA) when I see nothing that he truly did wrong? What benefit do the Shia have to bad-mouth Muawiya (RA)? Jazakallah

(question posted as received)

Answer:

Foreword by Muft Ebrahim Desai āib (afidhahullah)

A loyal child is ultra-sensitive to the dignity of his father. If his father becomes a victim of undue humiliation, he would stand up to the occasion to defend the dignity and honour of his father.

We are the spiritual children of the great and illustrious Ṣaḥābah of Rasullullah Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. We are aware of their great sacrifices for Dῑn. They earned and own an honourable position in Islām.

Every year, during the occasion of ‘Āshura and in general, the honourable Sahabah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhum are vilified. On this occasion, in context of the incident of Karbalah, the personality of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu is the greatest target of attack.

There was a great need to highlight the great and illustrious personality of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and inculcate within us an admiration and reverence for him.

Moulānā Mu’ādh Chati is a student of the Dārul Iftaa. Allah has blessed him with great talents. He received a question on Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and the Shῑ’ahs. In his response, he translated Moulānā Maḥmūd Ashraf’s book on the subject from Urdu. The work extensively highlights the many aspects of the life of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

I urge you to read this booklet on this occasion and circulate it as much as possible.

May Allah accept the efforts of Moulana Mu’ādh. May the Ummah benefit from his knowledge and efforts. Ameen.

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

The Shῑ’ah sect/cult are well-known for their hatred for Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and the Ṣaḥābah in general.

All the accusations hurled at Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu are either baseless or purposefully manipulated.

As for the claim that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu used to curse Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu during his sermons (Khutbahs), we will analyse this in detail.

Ḥadhrat Muftῑ Taqῑ Uthmānῑ Ṣāḥib (Dāmat Barakātuhum) has written a book in the Urdu language titled:

حضرت  معاویہ  اور  تاریخی  حقائق   

“Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and the Historical Realities”

Ḥadhrat Muftῑ Taqῑ Uthmānῑ Ṣāḥib (Dāmat Barakātuhum) writes:

ہمیں    کسی   بھی  کتاب  میں  یہ  کہیں  نہیں  ملا  کہ  حضرت  معاویہ  رضی  اللہ  عنہ  “خود”  حضرت  علی  رضی  اللہ  عنہ  پر  بر سر منبر  سب  وشتم  کی  بوچھاڑ  کرتے  تھے 

“I could not find in any book where it states that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would himself regularly curse and insult Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu whilst on the pulpit (Mimbar)”[1]

After mentioning this, he analyses the claim that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would curse Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu during his sermons (Khutbahs).

Hadhrat Muftῑ Taqῑ Uthmānῑ Ṣāḥib (Dāmat Barakātuhum) mentions that instead of finding a narration stating that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would curse Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu during his sermons (Khutbahs), he found many narrations which show that despite their differences, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had immense respect for Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

These narrations include:

1)     Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathῑr Raḥimahullah (d.774 AH) states:

 

لَمَّا جَاءَ خَبْرُ قَتْلِ عَلِيٍّ إِلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ جَعَلَ يَبْكِيْ فَقَالَتْ لَهُ امْرَأَتُهُ أَتَبْكِيْهِ وَقَدْ قَاتَلْتَهُ؟ فَقَالَ وَيْحَكَ إِنَّكَ لَا تَدْرِيْنَ مَا فَقَدَ النَّاسُ مِنَ الْفَضْلِ وَالْفِقْهِ وَالْعِلْمِ

“When the news of [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]’s death reached [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu], he began to cry. So his wife said to him “are you crying for him even though you went to war against him?” He replied “Indeed you do not know what the people have lost in virtue, Fiqh and knowledge [through Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s passing]”[2]

 

2)     Imām Ibn Al Athῑr Raḥimahullah (d.630 AH) narrates that Busr ibn Abῑ Artāt said something harsh regarding Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu in the presence of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Zayd ibn ‘Umar ibn Al Khattāb. Upon hearing this, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu rebuked him by saying:

 

تَشْتُمُ عَلِيًّا وَهُوَ جَدُّهُ 

“You insult [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] [knowing that] he is his (Zayd ibn ‘Umar ibn Al Khattāb’s) grandfather?!”[3]

 

3)     Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathῑr Raḥimahullah (d.774 AH) writes:

 

وَقَدْ وَرَدَ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَجْهٍ أَنَّ أَبَا مُسْلِمٍ الْخَوْلَانِيَّ وَجَمَاعَةً مَعَهُ دَخَلُوْا عَلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ فَقَالُوْا لَهُ أَنْتَ تُنَازِعُ عَلِيًّا أَمْ أَنْتَ مِثْلَهُ؟ فَقَالَ وَاللهِ! إِنِّيْ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ خَيْرٌ مِنِّيْ وَأَفْضَلُ وَأَحَقُّ بِالْأَمْرِ مِنِّيْ وَلَكِنْ أَلَسْتُمْ تَعْلَمُوْنَ أَنَّ عُثْمَانَ قُتِلَ مَظْلُوْمًا وَأَنَا ابْنُ عَمِّهِ وَأَنَا أَطْلُبُ بِدَمِهِ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَيَّ فَقُوْلُوْا لَهُ فَلْيُسْلِمْ إِلَيَّ قَتْلَةَ عُثْمَانَ وَأَنَا أَسْلِمُ لَهُ أَمْرَهُ فَأْتُوْا عَلِيًّا فَكَلَّمُوْهُ فِيْ ذَلِكَ فَلَمْ يَدْفَعْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَحَدًا فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ صَمَّمَ أَهْلُ الشَّامِ عَلَى الْقِتَالِ مَعَ مُعَاوِيَةَ 

“It has reached us through many chains of narration that Abū Muslim Al Khawlānῑ and a group of people with him came to [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and asked him “you are dissenting with [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu], [do you believe] you are equivalent to him in stature?” He (Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu) replied “I swear by Allah! Surely I know that he is superior, more virtuous and more worthy of leadership than me, however, do you not know that [Ḥadhrat] ‘Uthmān [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] was unjustly killed? And I am his cousin brother, I would like retribution for his blood and this is my right. So [go to Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and] tell him “hand over the killers of [Hadhrat] ‘Uthmān [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and I shall leave the caliphate for him””. The group then went to [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and talked to him regarding what had transpired, however, [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] did not hand over the killers to him (due to the precarious position that he was in). At this point, the people [of Shām] prepared to join [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] in war”[4]

 

4)     ‘Allāmah Ibn Al Athῑr Raḥimahullah (d.630 AH) has narrated the final sermon (Khutbah) of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, in which he said:

 

لن يَّأْتِيَكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِيْ إِلَّا مَنْ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ كَمَا أَنَّ مَنْ قَبْلِيْ كَانَ خَيْرًا مِّنِّيْ 

“No one (i.e. a caliph) will come after me except that I am better than him just as those [caliphs] who came before me were better than me”

 

5)     Ibn ‘Abdil Barr Raḥimahullah (d.463 AH) narrates that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu asked Ḍarār Ṣudā’ῑ’ to describe Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. Ḍarār Ṣudā’ῑ’ described Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu with touching words after which Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu remarked:

 

رَحِمَ اللهُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ كَانَ وَاللهِ كَذَلِكَ 

“May Allah have mercy upon the father of Ḥasan (Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu), I swear by Allah, he was just as you have described him”

 

6)     Ibn ‘Abdil Barr Raḥimahullah (d.463 AH) writes:

 

وَكَانَ مُعَاوِيَةُ يَكْتُبُ فِيْمَا يَنْزِلُ بِهِ لِيَسْأَلَ لَهُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِيْ طَالِبٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَلَمَّا بَلَغَهُ قَتْلُهُ قَالَ ذَهَبَ الْفِقْهُ وَالْعِلْمُ بِمَوْتِ ابْنِ أَبِيْ طَالِبٍ 

“[Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] would write down issues that would occur in order to consult [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ ibn Abῑ Ṭālib [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] regarding them, so when the news of his (Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s) death reached him (Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu), he said “Fiqh and knowledge have gone through the death of Ibn Abῑ Ṭālib (Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu)”[5]

In fact, there was mutual respect between Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

1)     Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh Raḥimahullah narrates the following incident through a chain of narration:

سَمِعَ عَلِيٌّ يَوْمَ الْجَمَلِ وَيَوْمَ صِفِّيْنَ رَجُلًا يَغْلُوْ فِي الْقَوْلِ فَقَالَ لَا تَقُوْلُوْا إِلَّا خَيْرًا إِنَّمَا هُمْ قَوْمٌ زَعَمُوْا إِنَّا بَغَيْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ وَزَعَمْنَا أَنَّهُمْ بَغَوْا عَلَيْنَا فَقَاتَلْنَاهُمْ 

“On the day of the Battle of the camel and the day of the Battle of Ṣiffῑn, [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] heard a man speak harshly regarding the opposition, he [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] responded: “do not say anything except good, indeed they are people who feel that we have rebelled against them and we feel that they have rebelled against us, and for this reason we have gone to war against them”[6]

2)     Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathῑr Raḥimahullah (d.774 AH) reports that when Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu returned from the Battle of Ṣiffῑn, he said:

 

          أَيُّهَا النَّاسِ! لَا تَكْرَهُوْا إِمَارَةَ مُعَاوِيَةَ فَإِنَّكُمْ لَوْ فَقَدْتُمُوْهُ رَأَيْتُمُ الرُّؤُوْسَ تَنْدَرُ عَنْ كَوَاهِلِهَا كَأَنَّمَا الْحَنْظَلُ 

“Oh people! Do not disapprove of the governance of [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] because indeed if you lose him, you will see heads roll off their shoulders as though they are colocynths falling off trees”[7]

At this juncture, we feel that it is important to clarify a narration found in the books of Ḥadῑth.

‘Āmir ibn Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqās narrates on the authority of his father:

أَمَرَ مُعَاوِيَةُ بْنُ أَبِيْ سُفْيَانَ سَعْدًا فَقَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَنْ تَسُبَّ أَبَا التُّرَابِ؟ فَقَالَ أَمَّا مَا ذَكَرْتُ ثَلَاثًا قَالَهُنَّ لَهُ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلَنْ أَسُبَّهُ لَأَنْ تَكُوْنُ لِيْ وَاحِدَةٌ مِنْهُنَّ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ حُمُرِ النَّعَمِ سَمِعْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُوْلُ لَهُ خَلَّفَهُ فِيْ بَعْضِ مَغَازِيْهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ عَلِيٌّ يَا رَسُوْلَ اللهِ خَلَّفْتَنِيْ مَعَ النِّسَاءِ وَالصِّبْيَانِ؟ فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ “أَمَا تَرْضِىْ أَنْ تَكُوْنَ مِنِّيْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ هَارُوْنَ مِنْ مُوْسَى؟ إِلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا نُبُوَّةَ بَعْدِيْ” وَسَمِعْتُهُ يَقُوْلُ يَوْمَ خَيْبَرَ “لَأُعْطِيَنَّ الرَّايَةَ رَجُلًا يُحِبُّ اللهَ وَرَسُوْلَهُ وَيُحِبُّهُ اللهُ وَرَسُوْلُهُ” قَالَ فَتَطَاوَلْنَا لَهَا فَقَالَ “ادْعُوْا لِيْ عَلِيًّا” فَأُتِيَ بِهِ أَرْمَدَ فَبَصَقَ فِيْ عَيْنِهِ وَدَفَعَ الرَّايَةَ إِلَيْهِ فَفَتَحَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَمَّا نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الْآيَةَ “فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ” دَعَا رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلِيًّا وَفَاطِمَةَ وَحَسَنًا وَحُسَيْنًا فَقَالَ “اللَّهُمَّ هَؤُلَاءِ أَهْلِيْ” 

“[Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah ibn Abῑ Sufyān [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] appointed Sa’d as a governor and said: “What prevents you from insulting Abū Turāb (Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu)?” He (Ḥadhrat Sa’d Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu) said: It is because of three things which I remember Allah’s Messenger Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam to have said about him that I would not insult him and even if I find one of those three things for me, it would be more dear to me than red camels. I heard Allah’s Messenger Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam speak regarding [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] when he left him behind in one of his campaigns. [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] said to him: “Oh Allah’s Messenger, you leave me behind along with women and children?”. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said to him: “Aren’t you satisfied with being unto me what Harūn was unto Mūsā but with the exception that there is no Prophethood after me”. And I (also) heard him say on the Day of Khaibar: “I will certainly give this standard to a person who loves Allah and His Messenger, and Allah and His Messenger love him too”. He (the narrator) said: “We had been anxiously waiting for it, when he (the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam) said: “Call [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]”. He was called and his eyes were inflamed. He (Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam) applied saliva to his eyes and handed over the standard to him, and Allah gave him victory. (The third occasion is) when the (following) verse was revealed: “Let us summon our children and your children.” Allah’s Messenger Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam called [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu], [Ḥadhrat] Fāṭima [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu], [Ḥadhrat] Ḥasan [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and [Ḥadhrat] Ḥusain [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and said: “O Allah, they are my family.””[8]

The expert scholars of Ḥadῑth have stated the following[9]:

1)     Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu did not command Ḥadhrat Sa’d ibn Abῑ Waqqās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu to insult Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

 

2)     Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu wanted to inquire as to why Ḥadhrat Sa’d ibn Abῑ Waqqās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had remained impartial in the dispute between Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

 

3)     The word “سب” does not mean ‘to insult’, rather, it means ‘to rebuke’. An example of this may be seen in the following Ḥadῑth wherein the word “سب” has been attributed to the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, Ḥadhrat Mu’ādh ibn Jabal Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu states that during the Battle of Tabūk, the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said:

 

إِنَّكُمْ سَتَأْتُوْنَ غَدًا إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ عَيْنَ تَبُوْكَ وَإِنَّكُمْ لَنْ تَأْتُوْهَا حَتَّى يُضْحِيَ النَّهَارُ فَمَنْ جَاءَهَا مِنْكُمْ فَلَا يَمَسَّ مِنْ مَائِهَا شَيْئًا حَتَّى آتِيَ

“If Allah wills, you shall reach by tomorrow the fountain of Tabūk and you should not come to it until it is dawn, and he who happens to go there from amongst you should not touch its water until I come” 

 

Ḥadhrat Mu’ādh ibn Jabal Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu states:

 

فَجِئْنَاهَا وَقَدْ سَبَقْنَا إِلَيْهَا رَجُلَانِ وَالْعَيْنُ مِثْلُ الشِّرَاكِ تَبِضُّ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ مَاءٍ قَالَ فَسَأَلَهُمَا رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ “هَلْ مَسَسْتُمَا مِنْ مَائِهَا شَيْئًا؟” قَالَا نَعَمْفَسَبَّهُمَا النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَقَالَ لَهُمَا مَا شَاءَ اللهُ أَن يَّقُوْلَ

“We came to it (the fountain) and two persons (from amongst us) reached the fountain ahead of us. It was a thin flow of water like the shoelace with a small amount of water coming out. Allah’s Messenger Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam asked them whether they had touched the water, they said “yes”. Allah’s Messenger Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam rebuked them, and he said to them what he had to say by the will of Allah”[10]

Finally, in analysing this accusation made by the Shῑ’āhs, Ḥāfidh Ibn Taymiyyah Raḥimahullah states in Minhāj Al Sunnah Al Nabawiyyah:

ثُمَّ مِنَ الْعَجَبِ أَنَّ الرَّافِضَةَ تُنْكِرُ سَبَّ عَلِيٍّ وَهُمْ يَسُبُّوْنَ أَبَا بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ وَعُثْمَانَ وَيُكَفِّرُوْنَهُمْ

“It is surprising that the Shῑ’āhs disapprove of cursing [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] while they curse [Ḥadhrat] Abū Bakr [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu], [Ḥadhrat] ‘Umar [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and [Ḥadhrat] ‘Uthmān [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and also label them as disbelievers”[11]

In the final part of Ḥadhrat Muftῑ Taqῑ Uthmānῑ Ṣāḥib (Dāmat Barakātuhum)’s book, a short treatise has been written by Moulānā Maḥmūd Ashraf Uthmānῑ Ṣāḥib (Dāmat Barakātuhum) titled:

حضرت  معاویہ  شخصیت  کردار  اور  کارنامے 

“Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu], his Personality, his Character and his Accolades”

This treatise was written upon the request of Ḥadhrat Muftῑ Taqῑ Uthmānῑ Ṣāḥib (Dāmat Barakātuhum) who states that he has reviewed the treatise and found it to be a very-well prepared and thorough research.

We have translated this section and present it here.

Moulānā Maḥmūd Ashraf Uthmānῑ Ṣāḥib (Dāmat Barakātuhum) writes:

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, his Personality, his Character and his Accolades

The illustrious Ṣaḥābῑ, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, is from amongst those few invaluable individuals from the history of Islām who the Muslim nation can never repay for their favours. He was from amongst the few elderly companions of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam who were granted the honour of constantly being in the companionship of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam as well as the honour of writing the revelations that he received from Allah Ta’āla.[12]

He is an undermined personality in Islām whose good qualities, personal rectitude and accolades have not only been ignored, but an active effort has been made to hide them. Baseless accusations have been hurled at Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and he has been accused of doing things which even a pious person would not do, let alone a Ṣaḥābῑ.

It is due to this intense propaganda that has been launched against Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu that the eyes of the people have been blinded from his amazing character and personality which were developed through a companionship with the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. The result is that people now only associate Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu with the Battle of Ṣiffῑn, which was fought against Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

As for the fact that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was a great Ṣaḥābῑ of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, that he diligently fulfilled the delicate task of writing down the divine revelation, that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam made many supplications (du’ās) for him, that a scrupulous individual such as Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu recognised his calibre, that he was the first individual to prepare an expedition across water in the history of Islām, that he spent a great period of his life carrying out a noble war (Jihād) against the Byzantine Christians and humiliated them in each campaign; today the world has forgotten these facts.

Yes, people today do know that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had a war with Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, but who conquered Cyprus, Rhodes, Sicily and Sudan? After years of inner turmoil, who bought the Muslim nation back under one flag? The obligation of a noble war (Jihād) which had almost become extinct, who bought it back to life? And who, during his governance, became a great example of displaying bravery, persistence, knowledge, action, honesty and reliability in the face of new situations? All of these things have become hidden in the far-fetching web of propaganda that has been spread against Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

The purpose of this treatise is to bring forward the supreme feats achieved by Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. This treatise does not cover his entire lifetime’s accolades, rather, it is those selected moments of his life which have been embedded into history in such a way that they have become invisible to the eyes of the people. By studying these selected moments of his life, one will be able to picture Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu in a manner that will suffice for all times.

I hope that by studying this treatise, the reader will be able to briefly see who this illustrious personality was from the history of Islām.

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Early Life

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was from the popular and famous tribe of Quraish, which was a tribe known throughout the entire ‘Arab world for its honour, acceptance, generosity and altruism. This tribe had the honour of being the tribe to which the leader of the two worlds, the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, was born.

From amongst the families of the tribe of Quraish, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was from the family of Banū Umayyah, which was considered the most respected family after the family of Banū Hāshim.

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s father, Ḥadharat Abū Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, was a respected member of his family and a renowned leader of his tribe before accepting Islām.[13] Ḥadharat Abū Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu accepted Islām during the conquest of Makah and upon his acceptance of Islām, the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam expressed great happiness and announced:

مَنْ دَخَلَ دَارَ أَبِيْ سُفْيَانَ فَهُوَ آمِنٌ

“Whosoever enters the house of Abū Sufyān shall be granted amnesty”[14]

Even before accepting Islām, Ḥadharat Abū Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had great personal qualities and an honourable character.

Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathῑr Raḥimahullah (d.774 AH) writes:

وَكَانَ رَئِيْسًا مُطَاعًا ذَا مَالٍ جَزِيْلٍ 

“He was a leader [of his people] whose command would be obeyed and who was considered from amongst the wealthy people”[15]

After accepting Islām, Ḥadharat Abū Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu remained in the company of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and participated in the Battle of Ḥunayn and the Battle of Yarmūk until he passed away in the 31styear after Hijrah.

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was born 5 years after the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was granted Prophethood. From a young age, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was a determined and empowered individual. In fact, when Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was 9 years of age, Ḥadharat Abū Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu looked at him and said:

إِنَّ ابْنِيْ هَذَا لَعَظِيْمُ الرَّأْسِ وَإِنَّهُ لَخَلِيْقٌ أَنَّهُ يَسْوَدُّ قَوْمَهُ

“My son has a great mind, indeed he is worthy of becoming the leader of his people”[16]

When Ḥadharat Abū Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s wife, Ḥadharat Hindah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anha, the mother of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, heard this, she said:

قَوْمُهُ فَقَطْ؟ ثَكِلْتُهُ إِنْ لَمْ يَسُدَّ الْعَرَبَ قَاطِبَةً

“Only of his people? I would cry for him if he does not become the leader of the entire ‘Arab world”

Similarly, an ‘Arab physiognomist saw Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu when he was a child and exclaimed:

إِنِّيْ لَأَظُنُّ هَذَا الْغُلَامَ سَيْسَوَدُّ قَوْمَهُ

“I think that this child shall soon be a leader of his people”[17]

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s parents gave Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu a special upbringing and taught him knowledge of various fields. At a time when the ‘Arabs were overshadowed with ignorance, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was considered one of those few individuals who had knowledge of various fields as well as an ability to teach and write.

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s accepting of Islām

Officially, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu accepted Islām during the conquest of Makah. In reality, however, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had accepted Islām well before the conquest of Makah, but due to difficulties that would have been imposed on him, he was unable to openly express his acceptance of Islām.

The famous historian, Al Wāqidῑ (d.207 AH), writes that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had accepted Islām after the agreement of Ḥudaybiyyah, however, he kept his acceptance of Islām hidden and only expressed it on the day that Makah was conquered. [18]

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu himself mentions as to why he kept his acceptance of Islam hidden until the day that Makah was conquered.

Thus, the erudite historian, Ibn Sa’d (d.230 AH) reports:

“Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would say:

لَقَدْ أَسْلَمْتُ قَبْلَ عُمْرَةِ الْقَضِيَّةِ وَلَكِنِّيْ كُنْتُ أَخَافُ أَنْ أَخْرُجَ إِلَى الْمَدِيْنَةِ لِأَنَّ أُمِّيْ كَانَتْ تَقُوْلُ إِنْ خَرَجْتَ قَطَعْنَا عَنْكَ الَقُوْتَ 

“I had accepted Islam before the ‘Umratul Qadhā’, however, I feared leaving for Madinah as my mother would tell me “if you go, then we will stop providing you with your basic necessities””. Due to this and many other reasons, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu only expressed his acceptance of Islam, along with his father, on the day that Makah was conquered.””[19]

It is for this reason that we see that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu did not participate in the Battle of Badr, the Battle of Uḥud, the Battle of the trenches or the Battle of Ḥudaybiyyah on the side of the non-Muslims. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu did not participate in these battles even though Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was a teenager at the time and his father was the leader of the non-Muslims. In fact, teenagers of similar age to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu participated in opposition to the Muslims. In consideration of all these factors, it is apparent that the truthfulness of Islām was embedded in the heart of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu from a young age.

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Relationship with the Prophet allallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam

After accepting Islām, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu remained in the service of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and was the cornerstone of a special group of people who were assigned to write the divine revelation. This group would write down whatever was revealed upon the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and would also write the various letters that would be sent from the court of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam.

It was due to his post of writing the divine revelation that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was given the title:

كَاتِبُ الْوَحْيِ

“‘Kātibul Waḥy’ – the writer of revelation”[20]

We do not need to discuss how the delicate responsibility of writing the divine revelation required one to be incredibly dexterous, reliable, trustworthy, knowledgeable and of deep understanding.

Due to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s continuous service of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, his reliability, his trustworthiness and other praiseworthy qualities that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam madedu’ā for Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu on many occassions.

In the famous book of Hadith, Sunan Al Tirmidhi, it is recorded that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam made the following du’ā for Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ هَادِيًا مَّهْدِيًّا وَاهْدِ بِهِ 

“Oh Allah! Make him (Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu) a person who guides and is guided, and guide others through him”[21]

In another narration, the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam made the following du’ā:

اللَّهُمَّ عَلِّمْ مُعَاوِيَةَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِسَابَ وَقِهِ الْعَذَابَ 

“Oh Allah! Teach Mu’awiyah the book (the Qur’an) and Hisab and save him from punishment”[22]

The famous Ṣaḥābῑ, Ḥadhrat ‘Amr ibn Al ‘Ās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu states that he heard the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam say:

اللَّهُمَّ عَلِّمْهُ الْكِتَابَ وَمَكِّنْ لَهُ فِي الْبِلَادِ وَقِهِ الْعَذَابَ 

“Oh Allah! Teach him (Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu) the book (the Qur’an) and grant him a place to live in the various cities and save him from punishment”[23]

It is apparent from the above Ḥadith that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had prophesised and made du’ā that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would one day become a leader and caliph.

Hence, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu himself narrates that he once took some water for wudhu to the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. The Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam performed wudhu with the water and then looked at me and said:

يَا مُعَاوِيَةَ إِنْ وُلِّيْتَ أَمْرًا فَاتَّقِ اللهَ وَاعْدِلْ

“Oh Mu’āwiyah! If you are ever delegated to lead, then fear Allah and be just”

Some narrations mention that after this, the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said:

“Whosoever does good, pay attention to him and show mercy to him, and whosoever does evil, forgive him”[24]

After narrating this Ḥadῑth, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu states:

“After listening to this statement of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, I felt that I would certainly be tested with this responsibility [of leadership], and so that is what happened; (I was made a leader)”[25]

From these narrations, we may discern the status that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had in the eyes of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and the amount of love that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had for Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

In one narration it is mentioned that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam called Ḥadhrat Abū Bakr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Hadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallahu Anhu for consulation in a matter. However, both individuals were unable to give an opinion, so the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said:

ادْعُوْا مُعَاوِيَةَ احْضُرُوْهُ أَمْرَكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ قَوِيٌّ أَمِيْنٌ

“Call Mu’āwiyah and present the matter to him, for he is capable and reliable”

However, this narration has a weak chain of narration.[26]

In another narration it is mentioned that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was sitting on his animal and Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was sitting behind the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. After a while, the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said:

مَا يَلِيْنِيْ مِنْكَ؟ 

“Oh Mu’awiyah! What part of your body is touching my body?”

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu replied:

“Oh Prophet of Allah! My heart is touching your blessed body.”

Upon hearing this, the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said:

اللَّهُمَّ امْلَأْهُ عِلْمًا 

“Oh Allah! Fill it with knowledge”[27]

When Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s father, Ḥadhrat Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu accepted Islām, he came to the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and said:

“Oh Messenger of Allah! Before accepting Islām, I used to fight against the Muslims, command me now to fight the disbelievers and carry out the noble war (Jihād) against them”

The Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said:

“Of course! Carry out the noble war (Jihād) against them”[28]

Hence, after accepting Islām, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Ḥadhrat Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu participated in various battles with the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and fought a noble war (Jihād) against the disbelievers.

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu participated in the Battle of Ḥunayn and the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam gave Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu 100 camels and 8 kilograms of silver from the booty gained from the tribe of Hawāzin.[29]

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu in the Eyes of the aābah

From the above Ahadith we have established the close bond that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had with Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and we have understood the clear virtues of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

Apart from this, there are many statements recorded from the illustrious Ṣaḥābah which indicate towards the high status that the Ṣaḥābah gave to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

Once, a person began to criticise Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu in the presence of Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu replied:

دَعُوْنَا مِنْ ذَمِّ فَتَى قُرَيْشٍ مَن يَّضْحَكُ فِي الْغَضَبِ وَلَا يَنَالُ مَا عِنْدَهُ إِلَّا عَلَى الرَّضَا وَلَا يُؤْخَذُ مَا فَوْقَ رَأْسِهِ إِلَّا مِنْ تَحْتِ قَدَمَيْهِ 

“Do not criticise this young man from the Quraish, [whose forbearance is such that] he laughs when he is angry, [who is such that] whatever he has cannot be attained except by pleasing him, [who is such that] if you wish to attain that which is on his head, then you would have to lower yourself down to his feet”[30]

On another occasion, Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu said:

إِيَّاكُمْ وَالْفُرْقَةُ بَعْدِيْ فَإِنْ فَعَلْتُمْ فَاعْلَمُوْا أَنَّ مُعَاوِيَةَ بِالشَّامِ 

“Oh people! Do not create divisions between yourselves after me, and if you do so, then know that [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] is in Shām[31][32]

Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would say:

تَذْكُرُونَ كِسْرَى وَقَيْصَرَ وَدَهَاءَهُمَا وَعِنْدَكُمْ مُعَاوِيَةُ!

“You [the people] praise the tactical wit of Caesar and Khosroes, even though you have [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’] amongst you!”[33]

One can also discern the stature that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had in the eyes of Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu by the fact that after the demise of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s brother, Ḥadhrat Yazῑd ibn Abῑ Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu appointed Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu as the governor of Shām.[34]

The world knows that Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was extremely cautious in appointing his governors, such that he would not appoint an individual as a governor until he had gained complete satisfaction that the individual was the most suitable candidate. After this, Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would remain watchful over this individual and would remove him if he felt that he was not fulfilling his responsibilities diligently. Hence, the fact that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu remained the governor of Shām until Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s demise shows that Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had complete reliance upon Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

After the caliphate of Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu came the caliphate of Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu also had complete reliance upon Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and would consult Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu in all of the important matters that came before him. Not only did Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu maintain Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s position as the governor of Shām, he also appointed him as the governor of the areas surrounding Shām including Jordan, Homs, Qinnasrin and Palestine.

After this, Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was martyred and the people took a pledge of allegiance upon the hands of Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. It was during the caliphate of Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu that a difference of opinion occurred between Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu over the retribution for the killers of Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. This difference of opinion led to a war (Battle of Ṣiffῑn) between the two and became a cause of disunity between the Muslims. However, as any intellectual would know, both parties of this war had a common purpose; to protect and elevate the religion of Islām. For this reason, neither party was afraid to admit the religious standing and personal accolades of the other party.

Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathῑr Raḥimahullah reports that when Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu returned from the Battle of Ṣiffῑn, he said:

أَيُّهَا النَّاسِ! لَا تَكْرَهُوْا إِمَارَةَ مُعَاوِيَةَ فَإِنَّكُمْ لَوْ فَقَدْتُمُوْهُ رَأَيْتُمُ الرُّؤُوْسَ تَنْدَرُ عَنْ كَوَاهِلِهَا كَأَنَّمَا الْحَنْظَلُ

“Oh people! Do not disapprove of the governance of [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] because indeed if you lose him, you will see heads roll of their shoulders as though they are colocynths falling of trees”[35]

Let us now look at the Ṣaḥābah other than the four caliphs, and inspect the status that they gave to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

Once, a person complained to Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu regarding the jurisprudential practises of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu responded:

إِنَّهُ فَقِيْهٌ 

“Surely he is a Faqih (one who understands the rulings of Shari’ah)”

In another narration, it states that Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu replied with the words:

إِنَّهُ قَدْ صَحِبَ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ 

“Surely he (Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu) has stayed in the company of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam”[36]

Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s statement indicates that merely spending time with the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam is such a blessed privilege that there is no honour greater than it.

Similarly, once the freed slave of Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu came to Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and complained that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu prayed one rak’ah for Wir alāh instead of three, Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu replied:

أَصَابَ أَيْ بُنَيَّ لَيْسَ أَحَدٌ أَعْلَمُ مِنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ 

“He (Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu) is correct my son, there is none from amongst us more knowledgable than [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]”[37]

From the above, the recognition that Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu gave to the knowledge and jurisprudential abilities of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu is apparent. This was Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s qualities in respect of religion. In terms of character, Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu states:

مَا رَأَيْتُ رَجُلًا كَانَ أَخْلَقَ بِالْمِلْكِ مِنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ 

“I have not seen anyone more worthy of being a leader than [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]”[38]

The statement of Ḥadhrat ‘Umayr ibn Sa’d Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu has been recorded in the famous books of Ḥadith including Sunan Al Tirmidh that Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu ‘removed Ḥadhrat ‘Umayr ibn Sa’d Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu ‘from the governance of Homs and replaced him with Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. Some people expressed their displeasure at this decision, to which Ḥadhrat ‘Umayr ibn Sa’d Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu responded by stating:

لَا تَذْكُرُوْا مُعَاوِيَةَ إِلَّا بِخَيْرٍ فَإِنِّيْ سَمِعْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُوْلُ اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِ بِهِ 

“Do not mention [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] except with goodness for surely I have the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam say “Oh Allah! Make him (Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu) a means of guidance””[39]

Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu said:

“I have not seen anyone more worthy of leadership than [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]”

Ḥadhrat Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, who was one of the ten Ṣaḥābah that were granted the glad tiding of Jannah in this world and who remained impartial during the war between Ḥadhrat ‘Ali Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, used to say:

مَا رَأَيْتُ أَحَدًا بَعْدَ عُثْمَانَ أَقْضَى بِحَقٍّ مِّنْ صَاحِبِ هَذَا الْبَابِ يَعْنِيْ مُعَاوِيَةَ 

“I have not seen anyone after [Ḥadhrat] ‘Uthmān [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] more just in his rulings than the individual of this door, i.e. [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]”[40]

Ḥadhrat Qabiṣah ibn Jābir Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu said:

مَا رَأَيْتُ أَحَدًا أَعْظَمَ حِلْمًا وَلَا أَكْثَرَ سُوْدَدًا وَلَا أَبْعَدَ إِنَاةً وَلَا أَلْيَنَ مَخْرَجًا وَلَا أَرْحَبَ بَاعًا بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ مِنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ 

“I have not seen a person with more forbearance, more worthiness of leadership, more dignity, more soft-heartedness or more rigorousness in good deeds than [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]”[41]

From these few incidents, one can see how highly the Ṣaḥābah viewed Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu in the Eyes of the Tabi’ūn

How did the Tabi’ūn (the companions of the Ṣaḥābah) view Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu? One may gleam at the answer to this by considering that during his caliphate, ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdil Azῑz Raḥimahullah did not whip anyone with lashes except an individual who insulted Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.[42]

Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathῑr Raḥimahullah (d.774 AH) has mentioned that the famous Tabi’ῑ’, ‘Abdullah ibn Al Mubārak (d.181 AH) was asked regarding Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, he replied:

“What can I say regarding this person? A person who prayed Ṣalāh behind the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and when the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said:

سَمِعَ اللهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ 

“May Allah listen to the one who praises Him”

He said:

رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ 

“Oh our Lord! For You is all praise””

The same ‘Abdullah ibn Al Mubārak (d.181 AH) was once asked: “Who is more virtuous: Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu or ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdil Azῑz?”[43]

The questioner purposefully compared a Ṣaḥābῑ who has been wrongly accused of many things with a greatly respected Tabi’ῑ’ whose high stature is acknowledged by the entire Ummah. So, upon hearing this question, ‘Abdullah ibn Al Mubārak (d.181 AH) became infuriated and said:

“You are asking me to compare between these two people?! I swear by Allah! The dust that went into Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s nose whilst the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam performed the noble war (Jihād) is more virtuous than ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdil Aziz”

A similar question was asked of Ma’āfῑ ibn ‘Imrān (d.185 AH) who also became infuriated and said:

“How can a Tabi’ῑ’ ever be equal to a Ṣaḥābi? Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu is the companion of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, his sister was married to the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, he wrote down and protected the divine revelation, so how can a Tabi’ῑ’ reach his status?”

After this, Ma’āfῑ ibn ‘Imrān (d.185 AH) narrated the following Ḥadith of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam in which the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said:

“Whosoever speaks ill of my companions or my family, Allah’s curse be upon him”.[44]

Aḥnaf ibn Qays (d.72 AH) was a famous Tabi’ῑ’; known amongst the Arabs for his great forbearance. He was once asked:

“Who had more forbearance? You or Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu?”

Aḥnaf ibn Qays (d.72 AH) replied:

“I swear by Allah, I have never met a person more ignorant than you, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had forbearance and had the capability [of acting upon his forbearance], and I have forbearance yet do not have the capability [of acting upon my forbearance]. So how can I be considered better than him? Or equal to him?”

Biography of adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu 

As we have discussed earlier, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was born five years before the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was ganted Prophethood. He announced his acceptance of Islām on the day of the conquest of Makah. After the demise of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu remain engaged in performing the noble war (Jihād) in Shām and its surroundings.

It was during this period that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu participated in the Battle of Yamāmah. It is the view of some historians that it was Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu who dealt the final blow to Musaylamah Al Kathāb (Musaylamah the liar). However, the correct view is that it was Ḥadhrat Waḥshi Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu who threw a spear at Musaylamah and killed, whilst Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and others assisted in the killing.[45]

Then, during the caliphate of Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, in the 19th year after the Hijrah, Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu commanded Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s brother, Ḥadhrat Yazid ibn Abi Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, who was the governor of Shām at the time, to conquer the land of Caesarea. Caesarea was a famous city of the Byzantine Empire and was a command base for the troops of the Byzantine Empire.

Ḥadhrat Yazid ibn Abi Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu besieged the city of Caesarea, however, due to the lengthy period of the siege, he left Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu in charge of the Muslim army and went to Damascus. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu maintained the siege of Caesarea and in Shawwāl of the 19th year after Hijrah, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu conquered the city of Caesarea.

Sadly, in Dhul Qa’dah of the 19th year after Hijrah, Ḥadhrat Yazid ibn Abi Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu passed away in a plague. Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was extremely saddened by his demise and after a short while, he appointed Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu as the governor of Shām.

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu used to receive 1000 dirhams a month as a governor and served this post for four years during the caliphate of Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu until Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s demise.[46]

After the passing of Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was made the caliph of the Muslims. Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu maintained Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s post as the governor of Shām and also appointed him as the governor of the new surrounding lands that had been conquered by the Muslims.[47]

During the caliphate of Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu served as a governor of Shām for approximately 12 years and during this period, he continued his campaigns in propagating the religion of Islam through the noble war (Jihād).[48]

In the 25th year after Hijrah, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu took up a noble war (Jihād) against the Byzantine Empire and reached the land of Amorium with the Muslim army whilst making army bases along the way.[49]

Cyprus was an extremely valuable and beautiful province of the Byzantine Empire close to Shām. It was the only gateway to conquering Shām and Mir from Europe, thus Cyprus was an important place as Shām and Mir, which were now completely under Muslim control, could not be protected until a voyage were to be taken to conquer this land. It was for this reason that during the caliphate Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had his eyes set upon this beautiful and important island. He had asked Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu on many occasions to give him permission to take a voyage and conquer Cyprus. Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, understanding the difficulties associated with sea travel and due to other strategic reasons, did not give Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu the permission to conquer Cyprus.

However, when Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu became the caliph, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu sought permission to conquer the land of Cyprus, Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu granted him permission to do so. So, in the 27th year after Hijrah, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu prepared the first ever Muslim army to travel across water in order to carry out a noble war (Jihād).[50]

This was the first occasion in the history of the Islām in which a voyage was performed with the intention of carrying out a noble war.

Allāmah Ibn Khaldūn Raḥimahullah (d.808 AH) writes:

“Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was the first caliph to prepare the Muslims for a voyage with the intention of carrying out a noble war (Jihād)”.[51]

By being the first individual to prepare a voyage with the intention of carrying out a noble war (Jihād), Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu not only achieved an incredible personal feat, he also became the recipient of a great honour given by the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam to the first army to cross water with the intention of carrying out a noble war (Jihād), which was that such an army would enter paradise.[52]

Hence, Imām Bukhārῑ (d.256 AH) has narrated the following Ḥadῑth of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam:

أَوَّلُ جَيْشٍ مِّنْ أُمَّتِيْ يَغْزُوْنَ الْبَحْرَ قَدْ أَوْجَبُوْا 

“The first army from my nation to cross water in order to carry out a noble war (Jihād) have certainly made paradise compulsory upon themselves”

In the 27th year after Hijrah, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu departed to conquer Cyprus and in the 28th year after Hijrah, he successfully conquered the land of Cyprus and implemented the tax (jizyah) upon its people.[53]

In the 33rd year after Hijrah, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu conquered Afrantinah, Multiyyah and some of the various fortresses of the Byzantine Empire.[54]

In the 35th year after Hijrah, the war of thu kashab (غزوة ذي خشب) occurred in which Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu participated as the commander of the Muslims.

In the 36th year after Hijrah, Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was martyred. After this, the well-known battles, the Battle of Ṣiffῑn and the Battle of the Camel occurred.

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was of the view that Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had been murdered unjustly and thus demanded that no leniency be shown in exacting retribution from the killers of Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. He disagreed that the killers of Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu be shown leniency or take in any part in the issue of the caliphate.

Accordingly, an incident mentioned by Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathῑr Raḥimahullah (d.774 AH) in Al Bidāyah Wal Nihāyah clearly shows Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s reasons for dissenting with Ḥadhrat ‘Ali Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and puts an end to the false rumours that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s actions were a result of a desire to rule.

Hence, Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathῑr Raḥimahullah (d.774 AH) writes:

وَقَدْ وَرَدَ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَجْهٍ أَنَّ أَبَا مُسْلِمٍ الْخَوْلَانِيَّ وَجَمَاعَةً مَعَهُ دَخَلُوْا عَلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ فَقَالُوْا لَهُ أَنْتَ تُنَازِعُ عَلِيًّا أَمْ أَنْتَ مِثْلَهُ؟ فَقَالَ وَاللهِ! إِنِّيْ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ خَيْرٌ مِنِّيْ وَأَفْضَلُ وَأَحَقُّ بِالْأَمْرِ مِنِّيْ وَلَكِنْ أَلَسْتُمْ تَعْلَمُوْنَ أَنَّ عُثْمَانَ قُتِلَ مَظْلُوْمًا وَأَنَا ابْنُ عَمِّهِ وَأَنَا أَطْلُبُ بِدَمِهِ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَيَّ فَقُوْلُوْا لَهُ فَلْيُسْلِمْ إِلَيَّ قَتْلَةَ عُثْمَانَ وَأَنَا أَسْلِمُ لَهُ أَمْرَهُ فَأْتُوْا عَلِيًّا فَكَلَّمُوْهُ فِيْ ذَلِكَ فَلَمْ يَدْفَعْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَحَدًا فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ صَمَّمَ أَهْلُ الشَّامِ عَلَى الْقِتَالِ مَعَ مُعَاوِيَةَ 

“It has reached us through many chains of narration that Abū Muslim Al Khawlānῑ and a group of people with him came to [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and asked him “you are dissenting with [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu], [do you believe] you are equivalent to him in stature?” He (Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu) replied “I swear by Allah! Surely I know that he is superior, more virtuous and more worthy of leadership than me, however, do you not know that [Ḥadhrat] ‘Uthmān [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] was unjustly killed? And I am his cousin brother, I would like retribution for his blood and this is my right. So [go to Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and] tell him “hand over the killers of [Ḥadhrat] ‘Uthmān [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and I shall leave the caliphate for him””. The group then went to [Ḥadhrat] ‘Ali [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and talked to him regarding hat had occurred, however, [Ḥadhrat] ‘Alῑ [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]did not hand over the killers to him (due to the precarious position that he was in). At this point, the people [of Shām] prepared to join [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] in war”[55]

After the above mentioned incident, how can there be any basis to the claims that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s actions were based on a desire to rule?

One may also understand the reality of the situation by reading a letter that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu wrote to the Byzantine Emperor. The Byzantine Emperor wanted to take advantage of the discord that had occurred between Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu as he had seen that the dispute would soon lead to a war, he therefore positioned his army on the borders of Shām in order to prepare for an attack on Shām. Upon discovering this, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu wrote a letter to the Emperor, the letter reads:

لَئنْ تَمَّمْتَ على مَا بَلَغَني مِنْ عَزْمِكَ لأُصالِحَنَّ صاحِبِي ولأَكُونَنَّ مُقَدِّمَتَهُ إِليكَ ولأَجْعَلَنَّ القسطَنْطِينِيَّةَ البَخْراءَ حُمَمَةً سَوْداءَ

“If what I have learnt that you have positioned your army in preparation for war is true, [then remember!] If you do this, I shall make peace with my companion (Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu) and I shall be at the forefront of his army that shall be sent against you and I shall turn Constantinople into a foul black ember”[56]

When this letter reached the Byzantine Emperor, he held back his army and aborted his plans as he knew that these people are a united body in their war against disbelief and that their dispute is not one based on political leadership.

Nevertheless, this unfortunate war between Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu took place. In truth, the real perpetrators of the war were those corrupt individuals from amongst both parties who spread false rumours and ignited the flames of war.

In the 37th year after Hijrah, the Battle of Ṣiffῑn took place. 70, 000 combatants joined forces with Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, this included many Ṣaḥābah and many Tabi’ūn. This war between Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu continued for a period of 4-5 years.[57]

After this, Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was martyred in a coordinated assassination which involved an attempt on Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s life as well.[58] After the demise of Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, his eldest son, Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, assumed the role of the caliph. Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had always been adamant in forming a peace pact and avoiding conflict. Although in the beginning the corrupt individuals surrounding him attempted to fuel the flames of hatred, Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu did not listen to them and in the 41st year after Hijrah, he handed over the caliphate to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu reciprocated this act of goodwill by providing Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu with a yearly maintenance of 100,000 dirhams.[59]

In discussing the resolution that occurred between Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, Ḥasan Al Baṣri Raḥimahullah states:

اسْتَقْبَلَ وَاللهِ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ عَلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ بِكَتَائِبَ أَمْثَالِ الْجِبَالِ فَقَالَ عَمْرُو بْنُ الْعَاصِ إِنِّيْ لَأَرَى كَتَائِبَ لَا تَوَلَّى حَتَّى يُقْتَلَ أَقْرَانُهَا فَقَالَ لَهُ مُعَاوِيَةُ وَكَانَ وَاللهِ خَيْرُ الرَّجُلَيْنِ أَيْ عَمْرٌو إِنْ قَتَلَ هَؤُلَاءُ هَؤُلَاءَ وَهَؤُلَاءُ هَؤُلَاءَ مَنْ لِيْ بِأُمُوْرِ الْمُسْلِمِيْنَ؟ مَنْ لِيْ بِنِسَائِهِمْ؟ مَنْ لِيْ بِضَيْعَتِهِمْ؟ 

“I swear by Allah, [Ḥadhrat] Ḥasan [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] faced [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] with an army the size of a mountain. So [Ḥadhrat] ‘Amr ibnul ‘Ās [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] said “surely I see two armies which shall not leave except that a huge war shall occur”, [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] said “Tell me! If this army kills that army and that army kills this army, then who will look after the affairs of the Muslims? Who will take care of the Muslim women? And who will look after the wealth of the Muslims and the orphans?”[60]

We can see from this incident the worry and concern that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had for the Muslims and the disdain that he had for inner-quarrelling between the Muslims.

Apart from this, ‘Allāmah Ibn Khaldūn Raḥimahullah (d.808 AH) narrates that when Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu decided to form a peace agreement with Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, he sent a white piece of paper with his stamp at the bottom of the paper. He told the messenger to tell Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu to add onto the paper whatever conditions he felt appropriate.[61] So, Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu added a few conditions onto the paper and in the 41st year after Hijrah, a peace treaty was formed between Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and the Muslims unanimously pledged their allegiance to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu as the caliph. In the history of Islām, this year is referred to as ‘the year of the group’ (عام الجماعة) as a remembrance that this was the year in which the Muslims who had been divided for many years, once again became one, and once again the Ummah pledged their allegiance to one caliph.[62]

Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathῑr Raḥimahullah (d.774 AH) narrates that when Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu returned to Madinah, an individual began to insult him due to the peace treaty that he had formed with Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. Ḥadhrat Ḥasan Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu responded:

لَا تَقُلْ ذَلِكَ فَإِنِّيْ سَمِعْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُوْلُ لَا تَذْهَبُ الْأَيَّامُ وَاللَّيَالِيُّ حَتَّى يَمْلِكَ مُعَاوِيَةُ فَعَلِمْتُ أَنَّ أَمْرَ اللهِ وَاقِعٌ فَكَرِهْتُ أَنْ تُهْرَاقَ بَيْنِيْ وَبَيْنَهُ دِمَاءُ الْمُسْلِمِيْنَ 

“Do not say that, for surely I heard the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam say “the coming of the day and night will not stop until [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] will become the leader. I knew that Allah’s will would occur and therefore, I did not prefer that the blood of the Muslims is spilt between me and him”[63]

After Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu became the leader of the believers, the tradition of the noble war (Jihād) that had halted since the time of Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was resumed. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu continued his campaign against the Byzantine Empire and fought 16 wars against them.[64] In fact, he made two factions to his army, one that would fight in the summer and one that would fight in the winter.[65] Such was his desire to conquer the Byzantine Empire that his final bequest was:

شُدَّ خَنَاقَ الرُّوْمِ 

“Strangle the neck of Byzantine Empire”[66]

In the 49th year after Hijrah, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu prepared a mighty army to attack Constantinople, with the leader of the army being Sufyān ibn ‘Awf. Many illustrious Ṣaḥābah participated in this war and this was the war that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had prophesised in his life and said regarding its participants:

أَوَّلُ جَيْشٍ يَغْزُو الْقُسْطُنْطِيْنِيَةَ مَغْفُوْرٌ لَهُمْ 

“The first army to fight Constantinople will have their sins forgiven”[67]

It was during Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s caliphate that the Muslims laid siege to the prized island of Sicily and gained a huge amount of wealth as booty. It was also during Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s caliphate that the area between Sijistan and Kabul and the entire land of Sudan were conquered.

I will present a summarised timetable of the various wars that occurred during the caliphate of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and all the lands conquered in the process. This is with exception to the lands that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had already conquered during the caliphate of Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and Hadhrat Uthman Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu as the governor of Shām.

Date after Hijrah adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s military achievements
27 Advances towards the land of Cyprus
28 Conquers Cyprus[68]
32 Conquers the areas surrounding Constantinople[69]
33 Conquers various fortresses from Afrantiyyah, Multiyyah and the Byzantine Empre
35 Leads the war of thū kashab (ذو خشب)
42 Begins attack upon Sijistan and conquers some of Sindh
43 Conquers Sudan and more land of Sijistan[70]
44 Conquers Kabul and the Muslims reach the land of Qandābil of Hindustan[71]
45 Begins campaign upon Africa and swathes of land are conquered[72]
46 Sicily is attacked and great booties of war are acquired

 

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Facial Features

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was handsome looking man. He was of white complexion and his face expressed the qualities of kindness and forbearance.[73]

Aslam, the freed slave Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu states:

قَدِمَ عَلَيْنَا مُعَاوِيَةُ وَهُوَ أَبْيَضُ النَّاسِ وَأَجْمَلُهُمْ

“Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu came to us and he was the most handsome and good-looking from the people”[74]

Along with this outer beauty, Allah had blessed Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu with immense personal qualities. Hence, he was an embodiment of justice, such that Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would say:

“You [people] praise the political ability of Caesar and Khosroes, even though you have [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] amongst you”.

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu as a Leader

The strength of the Muslims increased under the rule of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. Since the time of Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, due to the unrest between the Muslims, the tradition of conquering lands had halted. Once the caliphate of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu began, this tradition gained new life. Since the time of Ḥadhrat ‘Uthmān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had prepared a navy for which he made ‘Abdullah ibn Qays the chief officer.

During his caliphate, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu advanced his naval force and created many bases near the coastal areas of Shām and Mir such that 1,700 ships would be ready to go to war. His naval commander was Junādah ibn Abi Umayyah. Through this magnificent naval force, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu managed to conquer Cyprus, Rhodes and other important Greek islands. It was also through his naval force that he attacked Constantinople.

A postal system for the millitary was already in place during the caliphate of Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, however, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu structured and integrated this department such that the entire kingdom could use a postal system. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu also created a new department by the name of Diwān Khātam (which ensured that high level security letters could not be tampered with).[75] Also, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu appointed servants to look after the Ka’bah and covered the Ka’bah with a beautiful cover made from silk.[76]

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu remained a caliph for 19 years. In analysing the caliphate, Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathῑr Raḥimahullah (d.774 AH) says:

وَأَجْمَعَتِ الرِّعَايَا عَلَى بَيْعَتِهِ فِيْ سَنَةِ إِحْدَى وَأَرْبَعِيْنَ كَمَا قَدَّمْنَا فَلَمْ يَزَلْ مُسْتَقِلًّا بِالْأَمْرِ فِيْ هَذِهِ الْمُدَّةِ إِلَى هَذِهِ السَنَةِ الَّتِيْ كَانَتْ فِيْهَا وَفَاتُهُ وَالْجِهَادُ فِيْ بِلَادِ الْعَدُوِّ قَائِمٌ وَكَلِمَةُ اللهِ عَالِيَةٌ وَالْغَنَائِمُ تُرَدُّ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ أَطْرَافِ الْأَرْضِ وْالْمُسْلِمُوْنَ مَعَهُ فِيْ رَاحَةٍ وَعَدْلٍ وَصَفْحٍ وَعَفْوٍ 

“And the people were unanimous in pledging their allegiance to him in the 41st year [after Hijrah] as mentioned, he remained the caliph from this year till the year of his death.  [During this period] the noble war (Jihād) in the lands of the enemies continued, the booty continued to pour into the Baytul Māl from the various lands and the Muslims lived in peace, harmony, justice and mutual forgiveness”[77]

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu paid great attention in being just and fulfilling the rights of others.

Mujāhid Raḥimahullah (d.102 AH) would say:

لَوْ رَأَيْتُمْ مُعَاوِيَةَ لَقُلْتُمْ هَذَا الْمَهْدِيُّ

“If you saw [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu], then you would say “this is the Mahdῑ””[78]

Abū Ishāq Al Sabῑ’ῑ’ Raḥimahullah (d.129 AH) would say:

لَوْ أَدْرَكْتُمُوْهُ أَوْ أَدْرَكْتُمْ أَيَّامَهُ لَقُلْتُمْ كَانَ الْمَهْدِيَّ

“If you saw [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] or lived during his caliphate, you would have said that he is the Mahdῑ”[79]

Similarly, once during the gathering of Al A’mash Raḥimahullah, a discussion began over ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdil Azῑz, Al A’mash Raḥimahullah said:

“If you had lived during the caliphate of [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu], then you would have known”. The people asked: “[Are you referring to] his forbearance?” He replied: “No! I swear by Allah! [I am referring to] his justice and fairness”.[80]

It was due to these qualities that A’mash Raḥimahullah would remember Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu by the name:

الْمُصْحَفْ 

“The book”

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s caliphate was considered a success from all perspectives. He kept the Muslims happy during this period and they lived a life of peace and serenity.

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu put forward many systems to improve the services provided to the people. From amongst these systems that he put in place, one was that he made one individual responsible from each tribe to check whether a child had been born in his tribe and to check whether any guests had come to visit the tribe. If a child was born, this individual would write down the child’s name and an allowance would be allocated for the child from the Baytul Māl.[81]

Imām Bukhāri Raḥimahullah (d.256 AH) has mentioned in his book, Al Adab Al Mufrad, that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu ordered that the names of the thieves and criminals of each area be listed on a piece of paper. Other than this, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu opened up rivers, built mosques and made many other changes for the betterment of the Muslims. Due to these favours, the people loved Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and were prepared to give their lives for him.

Ḥāfidh Ibn Taymiyyah Raḥimahullah writes:

كَانَتْ سِيْرَةُ مُعَاوِيَةَ مَعَ رَعِيَّتِهِ مِنْ خِيَارِ أَمِيْرِ الْوُلَاةِ وَكَانَ رَعِيَّتُهُ يُحِبُّوْنَهُ وَقَدْ ثَبَتَ فِي الصَّحِيْحَيْنِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ خِيَارُ أَئِمَّتِكُم الَّذِيْنَ تُحِبُّوْنَهُمْ وَيُحِبُّوْنَكُمْ وَتُصَلُّوْنَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيُصَلُّوْنَ عَلَيْكُمْ 

“[Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]’s relationship with his people was that of the best of leaders, and his people loved him. It has been established in the two authentic books (Ṣaḥiḥ Al Bukhāri and Ṣaḥiḥ Muslim) from the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam that he said “the best of your leaders are the ones that you love and they love you and you send salutations upon them and they send salutations upon you”

It was for this reason that the people of Shām were ready to give their lives for him and would fulfil his commands with enthusiasm. Thus, Ḥadhrat ‘Alῑ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu once proclaimed to his army:

“How interesting is it that [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] calls completely ignorant people and they listen to him and follow him without any reward and once or twice in a year he takes the same people wherever he wants. However, I call you and even though you have intelligence and are given rewards, you still do not listen to me, stand up against me and continue to oppose me?!”

One of the reasons why the people of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu loved Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was that he considered a calamity upon even one individual as a calamity upon himself and he would go out of his way in alleviating the individual from his calamity. This may be understood from a short incident. Ḥadhrat Thābit Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, who was the freed slave of Ḥadhrat Sufyān Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, states that he participated in one the battles against the Byzantine Empire with Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. During the battle, a soldier fell off his ride and was unable to get up, he began to call for help. The first individual to assist him was none other than Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

Other than the general historians who have described these unique features of the caliphate of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, even the historians from the Shῑ’ah sect have been obliged to admit this. Hence, the Shi’ῑ’ historian, Amῑr ‘Alῑ, writes:

“Overall, [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]’s caliphate was in terms of inner relations, very pleasant and peaceful and from an outside perspective, it was very successful”.

The reason for this was that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would take a huge amount of interest in the on-goings between the general Muslims and would listen to their complaints attentively after which he would take measures to alleviate their problems.

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Daily Routine

The famous historian, Al Mas’ūdῑ (d.346 AH) has captured the daily routine of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu in great detail.

Al Mas’ūdῑ (d.346 AH) writes[82]:

“Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would pray Fajr and then listen to all the reports that would reach him from the various Muslim lands. After this, he would pray the Qur’an and then go home to fulfil his duties. After performing Ishrāq Ṣalāh, he would leave his house and seek the counsel of specific people to discuss with them some of the important matters on his mind. After this, breakfast would be bought which would be the left-overs from the supper meal. Following breakfast, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would continue discussing matters with his advisors and would then go home. After a while, he would return to the Mosque and sit leaning upon the pulpit, at this moment, the general Muslims including the weak, the villagers, the children and the women would come to him and explain their needs and problems. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would listen to all of them, fulfil their needs and alleviate their problems. After Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had met all the people and he had fulfilled their needs, no one would be left and so Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would enter the Mosque and meet the respected and honoured members of the Muslim nation. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would say to them:

“Oh people! You are labelled the most honourable of people as you have the honour of sitting in this gathering. Therefore, it is incumbent upon you to mention the needs of those who are not present”

These people would mention the needs of various people and Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would fulfil these needs. He would then eat lunch and have his scribe with him, his scribe would grant admittance to those waiting outside the door one by one. The scribe would read aloud the writings of the various individuals who were granted admittance. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would continue eating and dictate to the scribe the rulings he should write. Whilst the admitted individual would be present, he would also be permitted to eat with Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. After this, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would go home and would return for the Ṣalāh of Ẓuhr.

After Ẓuhr Ṣalāh, a special meeting would occur between Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and his minsters in which they would discuss various political issues and form laws. This meeting would continue until the time of ‘Aṣr Ṣalāh. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would pray ‘Aṣr Ṣalāh and then remained engaged in various activities until ‘Ishā Ṣalāh. After ‘Ishā Ṣalāh, he would discuss various issues with his officials after which he would discuss matters of knowledge until late into the night”.

Al Mas’ūdῑ (d.346 AH)states that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had allocated five times during the day in which the people would have permission to visit him and present their problems.

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Forbearance, Patience and Calm Character

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had such forbearance that his forbearance had become an example to all. His name had become synonymous to the quality of forbearance such that thinking of the quality of forbearance would be incomplete without thinking of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.

At times, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s detractors would come to him and speak to him extremely harshly, yet Hadhrat Mu’awiyah Radhiyallahu Anhu would maintain a smile. It was this quality of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu that made tremendously powerful leaders as well as his detractors bow their heads before him.

Thus, Qabῑṣah ibn Jābir states:

وَصَحِبْتُ مُعَاوِيَةَ فَمَا رَأَيْتُ رَجُلاً أَحْلَمَ مِنْهُ

“I have been in the company of [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu] and I have not seen anyone with more patience than him”[83]

Ibn ‘Awn narrates that during the caliphate of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, an average man would stand up and would say to him: “Oh Mu’āwiyah! Be good to us or we will straighten you out!” Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would respond: “With what will you straighten me out?” The man would reply: “With this stick”. To this Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would say: “Right! Then I will become straight”.[84]

Ḥadhrat Miswar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s story is famous. In the beginning, he opposed Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. However, he once brought a need to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu fulfilled his need. Upon fulfilling his need, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu asked: “Oh Miswar! Why do you insult and taunt us?” Hadhrat Miswar Radhiyallahu Anhu replied: “Oh leader of the believers! Forget about that!”

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu responded: “No, tell me everything that you would say about me”. Upon his command, Ḥadhrat Miswar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu repeated all the things that he would say regarding Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu calmly listened to all the claims made by Ḥadhrat Miswar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and soon after, began answering each and every claim. This response of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had such an effect upon Ḥadhrat Miswar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu that Ḥadhrat Miswar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would not discuss Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu after this except with words of praise and blessings.[85]

The stories of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s patience have filled the books of history. People would come and complain to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, yet he would maintain patience and attend to their complaints. Not only would he remove the difficulties of the complainant, but he would give him gifts as a consolation. Due to this, people would leave his gathering having fallen in love with his conduct.

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu himself would say:

“The pleasure found in drinking away anger cannot be found in anything else”[86]

However, his patience and forbearance were upon the condition that the religion of Islām and the Muslim nation were not compromised. It was for this reason that at times, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would stand up for his principles and express displeasure if he felt that the religion of Islām or the Muslim nation were being compromised. He would say:

 إِنِّيْ لَا أَحُوْلُ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَبَيْنَ أَلْسِنَتِهِمْ مَا لَمْ يَحُوْلُوْا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ مُلْكِنَا 

“I will not come between people and their tongues as long as they do not come between us and our [Muslim] nation”[87]

Similarly, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu once said:

لَا أَضَعُ سَيْفِيْ حَيْثُ يَكْفِيْنِيْ سَوْطِيْ وَلَا أَضَعُ سَوْطِيْ حَيْثُ يَكْفِيْنِيْ لِسَانِيْ

“Where my stick is sufficient, I do not use my sword. Where my tongue is sufficient, I do not use my stick”.[88]

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Pardoning, Leniency and Good Character

Apart from the many other qualities that Allah Ta’āla had blessed Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu with, He also blessed him with good character and the immense quality of being able to easily pardon others. In this regard, we will mention an interesting story which will show the qualities of patience, forbearance, and obedience towards the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had.

Once, Ḥadhrat Wāil ibn Ḥujr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, who was the son of the king of Haramawt, came to the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam to accept the religion of Islam. He accepted Islām and stayed in the company of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. When he was returning, he was accompanied by the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam who bought along Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was walking whilst Ḥadhrat Wāil ibn Ḥujr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu sat on a camel. Ḥadhrat Wāil ibn Ḥujr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was a prince and had only just entered Islam, he therefore did not want Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu to sit with him.

For a considerable distance, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu continued to walk in the daunting Arabian heat but when his feet began to boil due to the overwhelming heat, he turned to Ḥadhrat Wāil ibn Ḥujr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and asked: “Allow me to sit with you”. However, Ḥadhrat Wāil ibn Ḥujr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu still felt the prestige of a prince and so he replied: “How is possible for me to sit with you? You are not from amongst those people who can sit with kings”. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu pleaded: “Fine, just give me your shoes at least so that I can survive the blistering heat”. Ḥadhrat Wāil ibn Ḥujr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu denied this request and replied: “It is enough of an honour for you to walk on the rope of my camel which is touching the floor”.

The summary is that Ḥadhrat Wāil ibn Ḥujr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu did not let Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu sit with him on the camel and nor did he give him shoes so that he may avoid burning his feet. It is apparent that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu himself was of a high stature, he was the son of a leader of Quraish, however, out of respect for the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu did not make an objection and continued without a frown.

Nonetheless, a time came when Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu became the caliph and Ḥadhrat Wāil ibn Ḥujr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu presented himself before Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu recognised Ḥadhrat Wāil ibn Ḥujr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and the entire incident came before Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s eyes. However, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu honoured him and treated with an immense amount of respect. This incident shows the respectful and magnanimous character of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu.[89]

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Love for the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had a deep love and connection with the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. Once, he found that there is a person in Baṣra who resembles the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu immediately wrote to the governor saying “send him to me immediately with respect and honour”. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu welcomed the individual, kissed him on his forehead and presented gifts to him.

It was due to this immense love for the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had kept safe the blessed finger nails, a cloth and the blessed hair of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam for which he made the bequest that the blessed hair be put in his nose, ears and on his eyes after his death.[90]

Similarly, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu bought a cloth that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had given to Hadhrat Ka’b ibn Zuhayr Radhiyallahu Anhu.[91]

It was due to this immense love for the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu resembled the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam in many of his actions. Ḥadhrat Abū Dardā’ Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would say:

مَا رَأَيْتُ أَحَدًا أَشْبَهَ صَلَاةً بِصَلَاةِ رَسُوْلِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللُه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِنْ إِمَامِكُمْ هَذَا يَعْنِيْ مُعَاوِيَةَ

“I have not seen anyone’s Ṣalāh resemble the Ṣalāh of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam more your Imām i.e. [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu]”[92]

It was this love that made Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu accept the statements and actions of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam with an open heart.

Jabalah ibn Suhaim states that he once came to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu during his caliphate and found him with a rope around his neck which a child was pulling. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was playing with the child. Upon seeing this, Jabalah states that he said “oh leader of the believers! What are you doing?!”

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu replied:

“Be quiet! I have heard the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam say that when you are with a child, you should behave like the child as it will make the child happy”.[93]

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Obedience

An example of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s obedience towards the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam may be understood from a narration found in Mishkātul Maābi.

The narration states that a peace treaty had occurred between Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and the Byzantine Empire. During the period of the peace treaty, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu began gathering his troops on the borders of the Byzantine Empire. The intention being that as soon as the peace treaty ends, an attack would immediately be launched upon the Byzantine Empire, this would create confusion amongst the Byzantine commanders as they would be baffled as to how the Muslims managed to reach them so quickly, and so they would be ill-prepared to fight allowing the Muslims an easy victory.

When the peace treaty came to an end, the Muslims attacked the land of the Byzantine Empire, shocked at how the Muslims had managed to attack them so quickly, the Byzantime army did not manage to respond to the Muslims and the land fell into the hands of the Muslims. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was moving ahead after conquering this land when suddenly, Ḥadhrat ‘Amr ibn ‘Abasah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu came to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and shouted:

وَفَاءٌ لَا غَدْرٌ 

“[The quality of a Muslim is] to fulfil oaths and to avoid deceit”

Ḥadhrat ‘Amr ibn ‘Abasah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu began to say:

سَمِعْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُوْلُ مَنْ كَانَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ قَوْمٍ عَهْدٌ فَلَا يَشُدُّ عَقْدَةً وَلَا يُحِلُّهَا حَتَّى يَنْقَضِيَ أَمَدُّهَا أَوْ يَنْبُذُ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَى سَوَاءٍ

“I heard the Messenger of Allah Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam say “when one has made a covenant with a people, he must not strengthen or loosen it till its term comes to an end or he brings it to an end in agreement with them (to make both the parties equal).”[94]

Ḥadhrat ‘Amr ibn ‘Abasah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was intending that just as it is impermissible to attack during the days of a peace treaty, it is impermissible to prepare for an attack during the days of a peace treaty.

As soon as Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu heard this command of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, he immediately ordered his army to return and so, the entire army left the land that they had conquered. There is only a possibility that such obedience be found elsewhere that in the midst of conquering a land, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu ordered his troops to retreat due to a single statement of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam.

Similarly, once Ḥadhrat Abū Maryam Al Azdi Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu came to Ḥadhrat Mu’awiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu enquired: “What is your reason for coming to me?” Ḥadhrat Abū Maryam Al Azdi Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu replied: “I have heard a Ḥadith which I wanted to narrate to you, the Hadith is that I have heard the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam say:

مَنْ وَلَّاهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ شَيْئًا مِنْ أَمْرِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَاحْتَجَبَ دُونَ حَاجَتِهِمْ وَخَلَّتِهِمْ وَفَقْرِهِمْ احْتَجَبَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ دُونَ حَاجَتِهِ وَخَلَّتِهِ وَفَقْرِهِ

“If Allah puts anyone in the position of authority over the affairs of the Muslims, and he secludes himself (from them), not fulfilling their needs, wants, and their destitution, Allah will keep Himself away from him, not fulfilling his need, want and destitution.””

Upon hearing this, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu immediately stood up and ordered that a person be appointed to continuously present the needs of the people to him.[95]

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Fear of Allah Ta’ala

We have found many stories which show the fear that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had for Allah Ta’ala. He would always fear the punishment of the day of judgement and would cry profusely when the punishments of the hereafter were mentioned.

Ḥāfidh Al Thahabi Raḥimahullah (d.748 AH) reports in his book on history that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu once came to a Mosque in Damascus for the sermon (Khutbah) of Jumu’ah and said:

إِنَّ الْمَالَ مَالُنَا وَالْفَيْءَ فَيْئُنَا مَنْ شِئْنَا أَعْطَيْنَا وَمَنْ شِئْنَا مَنَعْنَا 

“All wealth is ours and all the booty gained from war is ours, we shall give it to whom he want and deprive it from whom we want”

After saying this, nobody gave him an answer and the matter was left at that. When the next Jumu’ah came, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu repeated these words in his sermon (Khutbah), again, nobody said anything. When the third Jumu’ah came, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu repeated these words in his sermon (Khutbah), immediately a person stood up and shouted:

كَلَّا إِنَّمَا الْمَالُ مَالُنَا وَالْفَيْءُ فَيْئُنَا مَنْ حَالَ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُ حَكَمْنَاهُ إِلَى اللهِ بِأَسْيَافِنَا

“No chance! All wealth is ours and all the booty gained from war is ours, whoever comes between us and our wealth, we will send his matter to Allah using our swords”.

Upon hearing this, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu came down the pulpit and beckoned the man to follow him inside a room. The people became suspicious and so Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu asked for the doors of the room to be opened and for the people to come in. When the people came in, they saw Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu sitting next to the man, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu then said:

“May Allah grant this person a long life! This person has given me life! I had heard the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam say:

“There will be leaders after me who will say wrong and nobody will rebuke them, such leaders shall go to hell.”

So when I made this statement in the first Jumu’ah and nobody said anything, I became worried that I may be one of those leaders [that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had described], then the second Jumu’ah took place and again the same thing occurred, so I became even more worried. Then, when the third Jumu’ah came and this individual rebuked me, I felt relieved and confident that I am not from amongst those leaders [that the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had described].”[96]

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Simplicity, Destitution and Self-Sufficiency

The detractors of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu have worked very hard to create the impression that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was an egocentric person, whereas the reality is the opposite of this.

Ḥadhrat Abū Mijlaz Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu narrates that once Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu had to visit a group of people. As he came to visit the group of people, the people began to stand up for him, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu disliked this and said:

“Do not do this! For I have heard the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam say: “Whosoever wishes that people stand up for him should prepare his seat in the hellfire”.[97]

Yūnus ibn Maysarah (d.132 AH) states:

رَأَيْتُ مُعَاوِيَةَ فِي سُوقِ دِمَشْقَ وهو مردف وراءه وصفياً عَلَيْهِ قَمِيصٌ مَرْقُوعُ الْجَيْبِ وَهُوَ يَسِيرُ فِي أَسْوَاقِ دِمَشْقَ

“I saw Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu in the markets of Damascus wearing a cloth that had patches on it and he was strolling in the markets of Damascus in this state”[98]

Similarly, people once saw Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu give a sermon (Khutbah) in Damascus wearing a cloth that had patches on it.[99]

This was Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s inner simplicity and self-sufficiency. However, during his time as the governor of Shām, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would at times wear elegant clothes with the intention of giving the non-Muslims an impression that the Muslims are well-equipped. At the beginning, Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu did not prefer this display of elegancy, however Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu responded:

يَا أَمِيْرَ الَمُؤْمِنِيْنَ إِنَّا بِأَرْضٍ جَوَاسِيْسُ الْعَدُوِّ فِيْهَا كَثِيْرَةٌ فَيَجِبُ أَنْ نُظْهِرَ مِنْ عِزِّ السُّلْطَانِ مَا يَكُوْنُ فِيْهِ عِزُّ لِلْإِسْلَامِ وَأَهْلِهِ وَيَرْهَبُهُمْ بِهِ فَإِنْ أَمَرْتَنِيْ فَعَلْتُ وَإِنْ نَهَيْتَنِيْ انْتَهَيْتُ

“Oh leader of the believers! We are in such a place where very many spies of the enemy are all around us, therefore, in order to create fear in their hearts, we should display this outward elegancy. This is a method through which we can give Islam and the Muslims their due respect as well as strike fear into the hearts of the enemy. However, if you command me [to do something], I shall do it and if you prohibit me [from something], I shall refrain from it”

Upon hearing this answer, Ḥadhrat ‘Abdur Raḥman ibn ‘Awf Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu quipped:

مَا أَحْسَنَ مَا صَدَرَ عَمَّا أَوْرَدْتَهُ فِيهِ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ؟!

“Oh leader of the believers! Look at how he has saved himself from accusation in the best of ways”.

Ḥadhrat ‘Umar Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu replied:

مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ جَشَّمْنَاهُ مَا جَشَّمْنَاهُ 

“This is why I have placed this great responsibility upon his shoulders”.[100]

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Knowledge and Understanding

Allah Ta’āla had blessed Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu an abundance of knowledge and a complete understanding of Shari’ah. ‘Allāmah Ibn Ḥazm Raḥimahullah (d.456 AH) states that he was considered one of those Ṣaḥābah who were worthy of giving a Fatwā.[101] Hence, Ḥāfidh Ibn Ḥajar Rahimahullah (d.852 AH) has also considered Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu in the middle category of Ṣaḥābah who used to issue Fatāwā.[102]

Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would say regarding Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu:

 إِنَّهُ فَقِيْهٌ 

“Surely he is one who understands Shari’ah”

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu has 163 Aḥādῑth from the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam.[103] The individuals who have narrated Aḥādith from the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam include[104]:

1)     Ḥadhrat Ibn ‘Abbās Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu

2)     Ḥadhrat Anas ibn Mālik Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu

3)     Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah ibn Ḥudayj Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu

4)     Ḥadhrat ‘Abdullah ibn Zubayr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu

5)     Ḥadhrat Sa’ib ibn Yazῑd Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu

6)     Ḥadhrat Nu’mān ibn Bashῑr Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu

7)     Sa’ῑd ibn Al Musayyib Raḥimahullah

8)     Muḥammad ibn Sῑrῑn Raḥimahullah

9)     ‘Alqamah ibn Waqqās Raḥimahullah

10)   Abū Idris Al Khawlāni Raḥimahullah

11)   Aṭiya ibn Qays Raḥimahullah

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was well-known for his sermons. Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu also made an effort to begin a compilation of Islamic history. He asked ‘Ubayd ibn Shurayyah to gather the stories and incidents of the past, the biographies of the various kings and the roots of each language.[105]

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Humour

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu was a very jocular and jovial individual. A person of even the lowest stature would not feel afraid to meet him and would feel free to ask for anything from him.

Once, an individual came to Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu and said:

“I am building a house, please assist me in this and give me 12,000 planks of wood”

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu enquired:

أَيْنَ دَارُكَ؟ 

“Where is your house [that you are planning to build]?”

The man replied:

بِالْبَصْرَةِ

“In Baṣrah”

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu asked:

وَكَمِ اتِّسَاعُهَا؟

“What is the width and length of the house?”

The man said:

فَرْسَخَانِ فِي فَرْسَخَيْنِ

“Its length is [about] 6 miles and its width is also [about] 6 miles”

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu replied:

لاَ تَقُلْ دَارِيْ بِالْبَصْرَةِ وَلَكِنْ قُلِ الْبَصْرَةُ فِيْ دَارِيْ 

“Do not say “my house is in Baṣrah”, say “Baṣrah is in my house”!”[106]

adhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Demise

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s entire life was spent in knowledge and practising upon knowledge. He also spent his life rectifying and improving the state of the Muslims as much as he could.

Yet, when his detractors would accuse him of many baseless, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu would express regret. He was once asked: “What has happened? You are growing old so quickly”

He replied:

كَيْفَ لَا وَلَا أَزَالُ أَرَى رَجُلًا مِّنَ الْعَرَبِ قَائِمًا عَلَى رَأْسِيْ يَلْقَحُ لِيْ كَلَامًا يَلْزَمُنِيْ جَوَابَهُ فَإِنْ أَصَبْتُ لَمْ أُحْمَدْ وَإِنْ أَخْطَأْتُ سَارَتْ بِهَا الْبُرُوْدُ

“Why would it not come? And I constantly see an ignorant man over me who throws various types of accusations towards me and demands that I answer him. If I answer correctly, I am not commended in any way, but if I make a slight error in my answer, it is spread all over the world”[107]

In the 60th year after Hijrah, he had reached the age of 78.

It was during this final illness that Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu made his final sermon. His final sermon included the following words:

أَيُّهَا الناس! إن مِنْ زَرْعٍ قَدِ اسْتَحْصَدَ وَإِنِّي قَدْ وَلِيتُكُمْ وَلَن يَّلِيَكُمْ أَحَدٌ بَعْدِيْ خَيْرٌ مِّنِّيْ وَإِنَّمَا يَلِيْكُمْ مَنْ هُوَ شَرٌّ مِنِّي كَمَا كَانَ مَنْ وَلِيَكُمْ قَبْلِيْ خيراً مِّنِّيْ وَيَا يَزَيْدُ إذا دنا أَجْلِي فولِّ غُسْلِي رَجُلًا لَبِيبًا فَإِنَّ اللَّبِيبَ مِنَ اللَّهِ بِمَكَانٍ فَلْيُنْعِمِ الْغُسْلَ وَلْيَجْهَرْ بِالتَّكْبِيرِ ثُمَّ اعْمِدْ إِلَى مَنْدِيلٍ فِي الْخِزَانَةِ فِيهِ ثَوْبٌ مِنْ ثِيَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَقُرَاضَةٌ مِنْ شَعْرِهِ وَأَظْفَارِهِ فَاسْتَوْدِعِ القُرَاضَةَ أَنْفِيْ وَفَمِيْ وَأُذُنِيْ وَعَيْنَيَّ وَاجْعَلْ ذَلِكَ الثَّوْبَ مِمَّا يَلِيْ جِلْدِيْ دُوْنَ لِفَافِيْ وَيَا يَزِيدُ احْفَظْ وَصِيَّةَ اللَّهِ فِي الْوَالِدَيْنِ فَإِذَا أَدْرَجْتُمُونِي فِي جَرِيدَتِي وَوَضَعْتُمُونِي فِي حُفْرَتِي فَخَلُّوا مُعَاوِيَةَ وَأَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِينَ 

“Oh people! Surely there are some crops that have reached their time of harvesting. Surely, I was your leader, a better leader will not come after me, and whoever leads after me shall be worse than me just as those who led before me were better than me. Oh Yazid! When my time comes, instruct an intelligent and understanding man to perform my ghusl for an intelligent person has a [high] status by Allah. So, he should perform ghusl properly and should recite the takbir loudly. Then, go to a hankerchief found in my treasures, in it there is a cloth from the clothes of the Prophet Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and [in it] there is a small bundle of his [Ṣallallāhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam] hair and nails. Put the hair in my nose, mouth, ears and upon my eyes and put the cloth next to my body upon my kafan. Oh Yazid! Respect the command of Allah with regards to your parents! When you have put me in my kafan and have lowered me in my grave, then leave Mu’āwiyah with the Most Merciful of Merciful Ones”

After making this bequest, Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s health deteriorated further. Eventually, during the month of Rajab, 60 years after the Hijrah, in the city of Damascus[108], this star of knowledge, forbearance and wisdom went out forever.

إِنَّا لِلهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُوْنَ

“Surely we belong to Allah and surely to Him is our return”

Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu’s Janazah Salah was led by Ḍaḥāk ibn Qays (d.72 AH) and he was buried in Damascus.[109] At the time of his death, he was 78 years old.[110]

‘Allāmah Ibn Al Athῑr Raḥimahullah (d.630 AH) narrates that once ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwān (d.86 AH) was passing by the grave of Ḥadhrat Mu’āwiyah Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu, he stopped at the grave, stood by, and began making du’a. A person passing by asked “whose grave is this?”

‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwān (d.86 AH) replied:

قَبْرُ رَجُلٍ كَانَ وَاللَّهِ فِيمَا عَلِمْتُهُ يَنْطِقُ عَنْ عِلْمٍ وَيَسْكُتُ عَنْ حِلْمٍ إِذَا أَعْطَى أَغْنَى وَإِذَا حَارَبَ أَفْنَى ثُمَّ عَجَّلَ لَهُ الدَّهْرُ مَا أَخَّرَهُ لِغَيْرِهِ مِمَّنْ بَعْدَهُ هَذَا قَبْرُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ مُعَاوِيَةَ

“This is the grave of the person who, I swear by Allah, when he would speak, he would speak with knowledge and wisdom, and when he would stay silent, he would stay silent with patience and forbearance, whomsoever he gave to he made rich and whomsoever he fought he destroyed. Time gave to him quickly that which it gave to others very slowely, from those who came after him. This is the grave of Abū Abir Raḥmān; [Ḥadhrat] Mu’āwiyah [Radhiyallāhu ‘Anhu].”[111]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best 

Mu’ādh Chati

Student Darul Iftaa
Blackburn, England, UK

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 

 


[1] حضرت معاویہ اور تاریخی حقائق (37) مکتبہ معارف القرآن کراچی

 

[2] البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (526/4) دار المعرفة

[3] الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (67/3) دار الحديث

 

[4] البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (524/4) دار المعرفة

[5] حدثنا أبو الحسن محمد بن محمد بن سلمة البغدادي بمصر قال حدثنا أبو بكر محمد بن الحسن بن دريد قال أخبرنا العكلي عن الحرمازي رجل من همدان قال قال معاوية لضرار الصدائي يا ضرار صف لي عليا قال أعفني يا أمير المؤمنين قال لتصفنه قال أما إذ لا بد من وصفه فكان والله بعيد المدى شديد القوى يقول فصلا ويحكم عدلا يتفجر العلم من جوانبه وتنطق الحكمة من نواحيه ويستوحش من الدنيا وزهرتها ويستأنس بالليل ووحشته وكان غزير العبرة طويل الفكرة يعجبه من اللباس ما قصر ومن الطعام ما خشن وكان فينا كأحدنا يجيبنا إذا سألناه وينبئنا إذا استنبأناه ونحن والله مع تقريبه إيانا وقربه منا لا نكاد نكلمه هيبا له يعظم أهل الدين ويقرب المساكين لا يطمع القوي في باطله ولا ييئس الضعيف من عدله وأشهد لقد رأيته في بعض مواقفه وقد أرخى الليل سدوله وغارت نجومه قابضا على لحيته يتململ تململ السليم ويبكي بكاء الحزين ويقول يا دنيا غري غيري ألي تعرضت أم إلى تشوفت! هيهات هيهات! قد باينتك ثلاثا لا رجعة فيها فعمرك قصير وخطرك قليل آه من قلة الزاد وبعد السفر ووحشة الطريق فبكى معاوية وقال رحم الله أبا الحسن كان والله كذلك

الإستيعاب في معرفة الأصحاب لإبن عبد البر (1108/3) دار الجيل

 

[6] منهاج السنة النبوية لإبن تيمية (244-245/5) جامعة الإمام محمد بن سعود الإسلامية 

 

[7] البداية والنهاية (526/4) دار المعرفة

 

[8] صحيح مسلم (55/6) نسخة فتح الملهم – دار القلم

 

[9] قوله “ما منعك أن تسب أبا التراب” قال النووي: “قال العلماء الأحاديث الواردة التي في ظاهرها دخل على صحابي يجب تأويلها قالوا ولا يقع في روايات الثقات إلا ما يمكن تأويله فقول معاوية هذا ليس فيه تصريح بأنه أمر سعدا بسبه وإنما سأله عن السبب المانع له من السب كأنه يقول هل امتنعت تورعا أو خوفا أو غير ذلك فإن كان تورعا وإجلالا له عن السب فأنت مصيب محسن وإن كان غير ذلك فله جواب آخر ولعل سعدا قد كان في طائفة يسبون فلم يسب معهم وعجز عن الإنكار وأنكر عليهم فسأله هذا السؤال قالوا ويحتمل تأويلا آخر أن معناه” قال العبد الضعيف عفا الله عنه إن كلمة السب أصبحت اليوم تستعمل بمعنى الشتم والإقذاع في الكلام ولكنه كان ربما يستعمل في القرون الأولى بمعنى الملامة والتخطئة وقد مر في صحيح مسلم “في كتاب الفضائل” “باب معجزات النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم” أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم منع رفقته من الشرب من عين تبوك قبل أن يصل إليها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ثم سبقه رجلان إليها “فسألهما رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم هل مسستما من مائها شيئا؟ قالا نعم فسبهما النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وظاهر أن السب ههنا ليس بمعنى الإقذاع في الكلام وإنما هو بمعنى الملامة والتخطئة فكذلك يحمل قول معاوية رضي الله عنه لى هذا

تكملة فتح الملهم لمفتي تقي عثماني (56/6) دار القلم 

 

الرابع أخرج مسلم عن سعد بن أبي وقاص قال جاء معاوية بن أبي سفيان سعدا فقال ما منعك أن تسب أبا تراب….والجواب ذكر في شرح صحيح مسلم يجب تأويله إما بأن المراد بالسب اظهار خطأ اجتهاده وصواب اجتهادنا وإما بأنه سمع قوما يسبونه فأراد كفهم عن سبه بإظهار فضله عل لسان سعد وإما بأنه ليس فيه الأمر بل سوال من السبب المانع عنه وتكنيه رضي الله عنه بأبي تراب ليس طعنا فإنه كان يحب أن يكنى به

الناهية عن طعن أمير المؤمنين معاوية لمؤلف النبراس (d.1239 AH) (37) فاتح استنبول 

 

[10] صحيح مسلم (246/2) أصح المطابع كراجي

[11] قال الرافضي…ولعنه على المنبر

منهاج السنة النبوية لإبن تيمية (d.728 AH) (433/4) جامعة الإمام محمد بن سعود الإسلامية

 

وأما ما ذكره من لعن علي فإن التلاعن وقع من الطائفتين كما وقعت المحاربة وكان هؤلاء يلعنون رءوس هؤلاء في دعائهم وهؤلاء يلعنون رءوس هؤلاء في دعائهم وقيل إن كل طائفة كانت تقنت على الأخرى والقتال باليد أعظم من التلاعن باللسان وهذا كله سواء كان ذنبا أو اجتهادا مخطئا أو مصيبا فإن مغفرة الله ورحمته تتناول ذلك بالتوبة والحسنات الماحية والمصائب المكفرة وغير ذلك ثم من العجب أن الرافضة تنكر سب علي وهم يسبون أبا بكر وعمر وعثمان ويكفرونهم ومن والاهم ومعاوية رضي الله عنه وأصحابه ما كانوا يكفرون عليا وإنما يكفره الخوارج المارقون والرافضة شر منهم فلو أنكرت الخوارج السب لكان تناقضا منها فكيف إذا أنكرته الرافضة؟! ولا ريب أنه لا يجوز سب أحد من الصحابة لا علي ولا عثمان ولا غيرهما

منهاج السنة النبوية لإبن تيمية (d.728 AH) (468/4) جامعة الإمام محمد بن سعود الإسلامية 

 

وبالجملة إذا وقع بينهم الطعن بالسنان فالطعن باللسان أسهل منه إلا أنه لا يجوز لغيرهم والإخوان يتسابون ولا يجوز للأجنبي سب بعضهم

الناهية عن طعن أمير المؤمنين معاوية رضي الله عنه لمؤلف النبراس (d.1239 AH) (38) فاتح استنبول

 

[12] وصحب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وكتب له

الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة لإبن حجر (d.856 AH) (1856/3) دار المعرفة

[13] وكان أبوه من سادات قريش

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (d.774 AH) (512/4) دار المعرفة

 

[14] صحيح مسلم (345/6) نسخة شرح ملسم للنووي – دار ابن رجب|دار الفوائد

 

[15] البداية والنهاية (23/8) دار إحياء التراث العربي 

 

[16]وذكر ابن سعد عن المدائني قال نظر أبو سفيان إلى معاوية وهو غلام فقال إن ابني هذا لعظيم الرأس وإنه لخليق أنه يسود قومه فقالت هند قومه فقط ثكلنه إن لم يسد العرب قاطبة

الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة (121/6) دار الكتب العلمية 

 

[17] وقال المدائني عن صالح بن كيسان قال رأى بعض متفرسي العرب معاوية وهو صبي صغير فقال إني لأظن هذا الغلام سيسود قومه

البدابة والنهاية (513/4) دار المعرفة

[18] وحكى الواقديّ أنه أسلم بعد الحديبيّة وكتم إسلامه حتى أظهره عام الفتح، وأنه كان في عمرة القضاء مسلما

الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة لإبن حجر (120/6) دار الكتب العلمية

 

[19] وحكى ابن سعد أنه كان يقول لقد أسلمت قبل عمرة القضية ولكني كنت أخاف أن أخرج إلى المدينة لأن أمي كانت تقول إن خرجت قطعنا عنك القوت

الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة لإبن حجر (121/6) دار الكتب العلمية

 

أسلم قبل أبيه في عمرة القضاء وبقي يخاف من الخروج إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من أبيه

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (540/2) دار الغرب الإسلام

 

قال معاوية ولقد دخل علي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مكة في عمرة القضاء وإني لمصدق به

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (512/4) دار المعرفة

 

[20] Translator’s note: We have omitted the following quotation of Ibn Hazm Rahimahullah:

كتابه صلى الله عليه وسلم

على بن أبى طالب وعثمان وعمر وأبو بكر وخالد بن سعيد بن العاص وأبى بن كعب الأنصارى وحنظلة بن الربيع الأسيدى ويزيد ابن أبى سفيان وزيد بن ثابت الأنصارى من بنى النجار ومعاوية بن أبى سفيان وكان زيد بن ثابت من ألزم الناس لذلك ثم تلاه معاوية بعد الفتح فكانا ملازمين الكتابة بين يديه صلى الله عليه وسلم فى الوحى وغير ذلك لا عمل لهما غير ذلك 

جوامع السيرة لإبن حزم (22/1) دار الكتب العلمية 

 

ثم قال ابن عساكر وأصح ما روي في فضل معاوية حديث أبي جمرة عن ابن عباس “أنه كان كاتب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم منذ أسلم” أخرجه مسلم في صحيحه

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (d.774 AH) (517/4) دار المعرفة 

 

[21] سنن الترمذي (169/6) دار الغرب الإسلامي

 

[22] وعن العرباض بن سارية قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم “اللهم علم معاوية الكتاب والحساب وقه العذاب” رواه البزار وأحمد في حديث طويل والطبراني وفيه الحارث بن زياد ولم أجد من وثقه ولم يرو عنه غير يونس بن سيف وبقية رجاله ثقات وفي بعضهم خلاف

مجمع الزوائد (356/9) مكتبة القدسي

 

[23] وعن مسلمة بن مخلد “أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لمعاوية “اللهم علمه الكتاب والحساب ومكن له في البلاد”

مجمع الزوائد (356/9) مكتبة القدسي

 

قال الإمام أحمد حدثنا عبد الرحمن بن مهدي عن معاوية يعني ابن صالح عن يونس بن سيف عن الحارث بن زياد عن أبي رهم عن العرباض بن سارية السلمي قال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يدعونا إلى السحور في شهر رمضان: “هلم إلى الغداء المبارك ثم سمعته يقول اللهم علم معاوية الكتاب والحساب وقه العذاب” تفرد به أحمد ورواه ابن جرير من حديث ابن مهدي وكذلك رواه أسد بن موسى وبشر بن السري وعبد الله بن صالح عن معاوية بن صالح بإسناده مثله وفي رواية بشر بن السري “وأدخله الجنة ” ورواه ابن عدي وغيره من حديث عثمان بن عبد الرحمن الجمحي عن عطاء عن ابن عباس قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم “اللهم علم معاوية الكتاب والحساب وقه العذاب” عبد الرحمن بن أبي عميرة ورواه محمد بن المصفى عن مروان بن محمد الطاطري عن سعيد بن عبد العزيز عن ربيعة بن يزيد عن أبي إدريس عن ابن أبي عميرة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم دعا لمعاوية فقال “اللهم علمه العلم واجعله هاديا مهديا واهده واهد به” وقد رواه سلمة بن شبيب وصفوان بن صالح وعيسى بن هلال وأبو الأزهر عن مروان الطاطري ولم يذكروا أبا إدريس في إسناده ورواه الطبراني عن عبدان بن أحمد عن علي بن سهل الرملي عن الوليد بن مسلم عن سعيد بن عبد العزيز عن يونس بن ميسرة بن حلبس عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي عميرة المزني أنه سمع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وذكر معاوية فقال “اللهم اجعله هاديا مهديا واهده” قال ابن عساكر وقول الجماعة هو الصواب وقد اعتنى ابن عساكر بهذا الحديث وأطنب فيه وأطيب وأطرب وأفاد وأجاد وأحسن الانتقاد فرحمه الله كم له من موطن قد تبرز فيه على غيره من الحفاظ والنقاد

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (515-516/4) دار المعرفة

 

وقال أبو مسهر حدثنا سعيد بن عبد العزيز عن ربيعة بن يزيد عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي عميرة المزني وكان من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لمعاوية “اللهم علمه الكتاب والحساب وقه العذاب” هذا الحديث رواته ثقات لكن اختلفوا في صحبة عبد الرحمن والأظهر أنه صحابي وروي نحوه من وجوه أخر

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (540/2) دار الغرب الإسلامي 

 

[24] ورواه الطبراني في الأوسط والكبير وقال في الأوسط “فاقبل من محسنهم وتجاوز عن مسيئهم” باختصار

مجمع الزوائد (356/9) مكتبة القدسي

 

وقال الإمام أحمد حدثنا روح ثنا أبو أمية عمرو بن يحيى بن سعيد قال سمعت جدي يحدث أن معاوية أخذ الإداوة بعد أبي هريرة فتبع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بها وكان أبو هريرة قد اشتكى فبينما هو يوضئ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذ رفع رأسه إليه مرة أو مرتين وهو يتوضأ فقال يا معاوية إن وليت أمرا فاتق الله واعدل قال معاوية “فما زلت أظن أني سأبتلى بعمل لقول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى ابتليت” تفرد به أحمد ورواه أبو بكر بن أبي الدنيا عن أبي إسحاق الهمذاني سعيد بن زنبور بن ثابت عن عمرو بن يحيى بن سعيد ورواه ابن منده من حديث بشر بن الحكم عن عمرو بن يحيى به وقال أبو يعلى حدثنا سويد بن سعيد ثنا عمرو بن يحيى بن سعيد عن جده عن معاوية قال “اتبعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بوضوء فلما توضأ نظر إلي فقال يا معاوية إن وليت أمرا فاتق واعدل فما زلت أظن أني مبتلى بعمل حتى وليت” ورواه غالب القطان عن الحسن قال:سمعت معاوية يخطب وهو يقول “صببت يوما على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وضوءه فرفع رأسه إلي فقال أما إنك ستلي أمر أمتي بعدي فإذا كان ذلك فاقبل من محسنهم وتجاوز عن مسيئهم وقال فما زلت أرجو حتى قمت مقامي هذا” وروى البيهقي عن الحاكم بسنده إلى إسماعيل بن إبراهيم بن مهاجر عن عبد الملك بن عمير قال قال معاوية والله ما حملني على الخلافة إلا قول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم “إن ملكت فأحسن” قال البيهقي إسماعيل بن إبراهيم هذا ضعيف إلا أن للحديث شواهد

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (518/4) دار المعرفة

 

[25] وفي مسند أبي يعلى عن سويد بن شعبة عن عمرو بن يحيى بن سعيد عن جده سعيد هو ابن عمرو بن سعيد بن العاص عن معاوية قال اتبعت رسول صلى اللَّه عليه وآله وسلم بوضوء فلما توضّأ نظر إلي فقال “يا معاوية إن ولّيت أمرا فاتّق اللَّه واعدل” فما زلت أظن أني مبتلى بعمل صويد فيه مقال 

الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة لإبن حجر (1856/3) دار المعرفة

 

[26] قال الطبراني حدثنا يحيى بن عثمان بن صالح ثنا نعيم بن حماد ثنا محمد بن شعيب بن سابور ثنا مروان بن جناح عن يونس بن ميسرة بن حلبس، عن عبد الله بن بسر أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم “استشار أبا بكر وعمر في أمر فقال: أشيروا علي فقالا الله ورسوله أعلم فقال ادعوا معاوية؟ فقال أبو بكر وعمر أما في رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ورجلين من رجال قريش ما يتقنون أمرهم حتى يبعث رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى غلام من غلمان قريش؟ فقال “ادعوا لي معاوية فدعي له فلما وقف بين يديه قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أحضروه أمركم وأشهدوه أمركم فإنه قوي أمين” ورواه بعضهم عن نعيم وزاد “وحملوه أمركم” ثم ساق ابن عساكر أحاديث كثيرة موضوعة بلا شك في فضل معاوية أضربنا عنها صفحا واكتفينا بما أوردناه من الأحاديث الصحاح والحسان والمستجادات عما سواها من الموضوعات والمنكرات 

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير  (517/4) دار المعرفة

 

 [27]وقال أبو مسهر ومحمد بن عائذ عن صدقة بن خالد عن وحشي بن حرب بن وحشي عن أبيه عن جده قال أردف النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم معاوية بن أبي سفيان خلفه فقال “ما يليني منك”؟ قال بطني قال “اللهم املأه علما” زاد أبو مسهر “وحلما”

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (540/2) دار الغرب الإسلامي

 

[28] وقد ثبت في صحيح مسلم من طريق عكرمة بن عمار عن أبي زميل سماك بن الوليد عن ابن عباس قال قال أبو سفيان يا رسول الله ثلاثا أعطنيهن قال نعم

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (514/4) دار المعرفة 

 

[29] قال الواقدي وشهد معه حنينا وأعطاه مائة من الإبل وأربعين أوقية من ذهب  وزنها بلال

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (512/4) دار المعرفة

 

[30] البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (519/4) دار المعرفة

 

[31] وقال ابن أبي الدّنيا حدثنا محمد بن عبّاد حدثنا سفيان عن شيخ قال قال عمر إياكم والفرقة بعدي فإن فعلتم فاعلموا أن معاوية بالشام فإذا وكلتم إلى رأيكم كيف يستبزها منكم 

الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة لإبن حجر (1857/3) دار المعرفة

 

[32] Translator’s note: we have omitted the following story mentioned by the author:

وأخرج ابن سعد عن أحمد بن محمد الأزرقي عن عمرو بن يحيى بن سعيد عن جده قال دخل معاوية على عمر بن الخطاب وعليه حلة خضراء، فنظر إليه الصحابة فلما رأى ذلك عمر قام ومعه الدرة فجعل ضربا بمعاوية ومعاوية يقول اللَّه اللَّه يا أمير المؤمنين! فيم! فيم! فلم يكلمه حتى رجع فجلس في مجلسه، فقالوا له لم ضربت الفتى وما في قومك مثله؟ فقال ما رأيت إلا خيرا وما بلغني إلا خير ولكني رأيته وأشار بيده يعني إلى فوق فأردت أن أضع منه

الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة (122/6) دار الكتب العلمية

 

[33] الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (66/3) دار الحديث 

 

 [34]وقال محمد بن إسحاق مات أبو عبيدة في طاعون عمواس واستخلف معاذا فمات معاذ واستخلف يزيد بن أبي سفيان فمات واستخلف أخاه معاوية فأقره عمر وولى عمرو بن العاص فلسطين والأردن ومعاوية دمشق وبعلبك والبلقاء وولى سعد بن عامر بن جذيم حمص ثم جمع الشام كلها لمعاوية بن أبي سفيان ثم أمره عثمان بن عفان على الشام وقال إسماعيل بن أمية أفرد عمر معاوية بإمرة الشام وجعل له في كل شهر ثمانين دينارا والصواب أن الذي جمع لمعاوية الشام كلها عثمان بن عفان، وأما عمر فإنه إنما ولاه بعض أعمال

البداية والنهاية (519/4) دار المعرفة

[35] البداية والنهاية (526/4) دار المعرفة

 

[36] وقد قال البخاري في كتاب المناقب ذكر معاوية بن أبي سفيان حدثنا الحسن بن بشر ثنا المعافى عن عثمان بن الأسود عن ابن أبي مليكة قال أوتر معاوية بعد العشاء بركعة وعنده مولى لابن عباس فأتى ابن عباس فقال أوتر معاوية بركعة بعد العشاء فقال دعه فإنه قد صحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حدثنا ابن أبي مريم ثنا نافع بن عمر ثنا ابن أبي مليكة قال قيل لابن عباس هل لك في أمير المؤمنين معاوية؟ فإنه ما أوتر إلا بواحدة! قال أصاب إنه فقيه

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (d.774 AH) (517/4) دار المعرفة

 

[37] أخبرنا أبو زكريا بن أبي إسحاق المزكي ثنا أبو العباس محمد بن يعقوب أنبأ الربيع بن سليمان أنبأ الشافعي أنبأ عبد المجيد بن عبد العزيز عن ابن جريج أخبرني عتبة بن محمد بن الحارث أن كريبا مولى ابن عباس أخبره “أنه رأى معاوية صلى العشاء ثم أوتر بركعة واحدة لم يزد عليها” فأخبر ابن عباس فقال ” أصاب أي بني ليس أحد منا أعلم من معاوية

السنن الكبرى للبيهقي (39/3) دار الكتب العلمية

 

[38] البداية والنهاية (530/4) دار المعرفة

 

[39] وقال الترمذي حدثنا محمد بن يحيى ثنا عبد الله بن محمد النفيلي ثنا عمرو بن واقد عن يونس بن حلبس عن أبي إدريس الخولاني قال لما عزل عمر بن الخطاب عمير بن سعد عن الشام وولى معاوية قال الناس عزل عمر عميرا وولى معاوية فقال عمر لا تذكروا معاوية إلا بخبر فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول “اللهم اهد به” تفرد به الترمذي وقال غريب وعمرو بن واقد ضعيف هكذا ذكره أصحاب الأطراف في مسند عمير بن سعد الأنصاري وعندي أنه ينبغي أن يكون من رواية عمر بن الخطاب ويكون الصواب فقال عمر لا تذكروا معاوية إلا بخير ليكون عذرا له في توليته له ومما يقوي هذا أن هشام بن عمار قال حدثنا ابن أبي السائب وهو عبد العزيز بن الوليد بن سليمان قال وسمعت أبي يذكر أن عمر بن الخطاب ولى معاوية بن أبي سفيان فقالوا ولى حدث السن فقال تلومونني في ولايته وأنا سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول “اللهم اجعله هاديا مهديا واهد به” وهذا منقطع يقويه ما قبله

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (517/4) دار المعرفة

 

[40] وقال الليث بن سعد حدثنا بكير عن بشر بن سعيد أن سعد بن أبي وقاص قال ما رأيت أحدا بعد عثمان أقضى بحق من صاحب هذا الباب يعني معاوية

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (529/4) دار المعرفة

 

[41] وقال قبيصة بن جابر ما رأيت أحدا أعظم حلما ولا أكثر سؤددا ولا أبعد أناة ولا ألين مخرجا ولا أرحب باعا بالمعروف من معاوية

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (530/4) دار المعرفة

 

 

[42] وقال ابن المبارك عن محمد بن مسلم عن إبراهيم بن ميسرة قال ما رأيت عمر بن عبد العزيز ضرب إنسانا قط إلا إنسانا شتم معاوية فإنه ضرب أسواطا

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (535/4) دار المعرفة 

 

[43] وقال محمد بن يحيى بن سعيد سئل ابن المبارك عن معاوية فقال ما أقول في رجل قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم سمع الله لمن حمده فقال خلفه ربنا ولك الحمد فقيل له أيهما أفضل؟ هو أو عمر بن عبد العزيز؟ فقال لتراب في منخري معاوية مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم خير وأفضل من عمر بن عبد العزيز

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (534/4) دار المعرفة

[44] وقال محمد بن عبد الله بن عمار الموصلي وغيره سئل المعافى بن عمران أيهما أفضل؟ معاوية أو عمر بن عبد العزيز؟ فغضب وقال للسائل أتجعل رجلا من الصحابة مثل رجل من التابعين؟ معاوية صاحبه وصهره وكاتبه وأمينه على وحي الله وقد قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم “دعوا لي أصحابي وأصهاري فمن سبهم فعليه لعنة الله والملائكة والناس أجمعين”

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (535/4) دار المعرفة

 

[45] وزعم بعضهم أنه هو الذي قتل مسيلمة، حكاه ابن عساكر وقد يكون له شرك في قتله وإنما الذي طعنه وحشي وجلله أبو دجانة سماك بن خرشة

 بالسيف

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (d.774 AH) (512/4) دار المعرفة

 

[46] وعن إسماعيل بن أمية أن عمر أفرد معاوية بالشام ورزقه في كل شهر ثمانين دينارا

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (540/2) دار الغرب الإسلامي

 

قال أسد وأخبرنا إبراهيم بن محمد قال حدثنا عبد العزيز بن عمر عن سليمان بن موسى عن أبيه أن عمر بن الخطاب رزق معاوية على عمله الشام عشرة آلاف دينار كل سنة

الإستيعاب في معرفة الأصحاب (1422/3) دار الجيل

 

[47] فلم يزل معاوية نائبا على الشام في الدولة العمرية والعثمانية مدة خلافة عثمان

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (d.774 AH) (513/4) دار المعرفة

 

[48] كان من خلافة عمر أميرا نحو أربعة أعوام وخلافة عثمان كلها اثنتي عشرة سنة

الإستيعاب في معرفة الأصحاب (1418/3) دار الجيل

 

[49] وفيها غزا معاوية الروم فبلغ عمورية فوجد الحصون التي بين أنطاكية وطرسوس خالية فجعل عندها جماعة كثيرة من أهل الشام والجزيرة حتى انصرف من غزاته

الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (381/2) دار الحديث

 

[50] قيل في سنة ثمان وعشرين كان فتح قبرس على يد معاوية وقيل سنة تسع وعشرين وقيل سنة ثلاث وثلاثين وقيل إنما غزيت سنة ثلاث وثلاثين لأن أهلها غدروا على ما نذكره، فغزاها المسلمون ولما غزاها معاوية هذه السنة غزا معه جماعة من الصحابة فيهم أبو ذر وعبادة بن الصامت ومعه زوجته أم حرام وأبو الدرداء وشداد بن أوس وكان معاوية قد لج على عمر في غزو البحر وقرب الروم من حمص وقال إن قرية من قرى حمص ليسمع أهلها نباح كلابهم وصياح دجاجهم فكتب عمر إلى عمرو بن العاص صف لي البحر وراكبه فكتب إليه عمرو بن العاص إني رأيت خلقا كبيرا يركبه خلق صغير ليس إلا السماء والماء إن ركد خرق القلوب وإن تحرك أزاغ العقول يزداد فيه اليقين قلة والشك كثرة هم فيه كدود على عود إن مال غرق وإن نجا برق فلما قرأه كتب إلى معاوية والذي بعث محمدا صلى الله عليه وسلم بالحق لا أحمل فيه مسلما أبدا وقد بلغني أن بحر الشام يشرف على أطول شيء من الأرض فيستأذن الله في كل يوم وليلة في أن يغرق الأرض فكيف أحمل الجنود على هذا الكافر! وبالله لمسلم أحب إلي مما حوت الروم وإياك أن تعرض إلي فقد علمت ما لقي العلاء مني قال وترك ملك الروم الغزو وكاتب عمر وقاربه وبعثت أم كلثوم بنت علي بن أبي طالب زوج عمر بن الخطاب إلى امرأة ملك الروم بطيب وشيء يصلح للنساء مع البريد فأبلغه إليها فأهدت امرأة الملك إليها هدية منها عقد فاخر فلما رجع البريد أخذ عمر ما معه ونادى الصلاة جامعة فاجتمعوا وأعلمهم الخبر فقال القائلون هو لها بالذي كان لها وليست امرأة الملك بذمة فتصانعك وقال آخرون قد كنا نهدي لنستثيب فقال عمر لكن الرسول رسول المسلمين والبريد بريدهم والمسلمون عظموها في صدرها فأمر بردها إلى بيت المال وأعطاها بقدر نفقتها فلما كان زمن عثمان كتب إليه معاوية يستأذنه في غزو البحر مرارا فأجابه عثمان بآخرة إلى ذلك وقال له لا تنتخب الناس ولا تقرع بينهم خيرهم فمن اختار الغزو طائعا فاحمله وأعنه ففعل واستعمل عبد الله بن قيس الجاسي حليف بني فزارة وسار المسلمون من الشام إلى قبرس وسار إليها عبد الله بن سعد من مصر فاجتمعوا عليها، فصالحهم أهلها على جزية سبعة آلاف دينار كل سنة، يؤدون إلى الروم مثلها لا يمنعهم المسلمون عن ذلك وليس على المسلمين منعهم ممن أرادهم ممن وراءهم وعليهم أن يؤذنوا المسلمين بمسير عدوهم من الروم إليهم ويكون طريق المسلمين إلى العدو عليهم

الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (388/2) دار الحديث

 

[51] مقدمة ابن خلدون (453) بيروت

[52] وفي هذه الغزوة ماتت أم حرام بنت ملحان الأنصارية ألقتها بغلتها بجزيرة قبرس فاندقت عنقها فماتت تصديقا للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حيث أخبرها أنها في أول من يغزو في البحر

الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (389/2) دار الحديث

 

[53] وافتتح في سنة سبع وعشرين جزيرة قبرص وسكنها المسلمون قريبا من ستين سنة في أيامه ومن بعده ولم تزل الفتوحات والجهاد قائما على ساقه في أيامه في بلاد الروم والفرنج وغيرها

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (513/4) دار المعرفة

 

[54] وفيها غزا معاوية افرنطية وملطية وحصن المرأة من أرض الروم

العبر في خبر من غبر للذهبي (25/1) دار الكتب العلمية

[55] البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (524/4) دار المعرفة

[56] تاج العروس للزبيدي (381/10) دار الكتب العلمية

 

والله لئن لم تنته وترجع إلى بلادك يا لعين لأصطلحن أنا وابن عمي عليك ولأخرجنك من جميع بلادك، ولأضيقن عليك الأرض بما رحبت

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (514/4) دار المعرفة

 

وفي حديث معاوية “أنه كتب إلى ملك الروم لأجعلن القسطنطينية البخراء حممة سوداء”

النهاية في غريب الحديث والأثر لإبن الأثير (108/1) دار المعرفة

 

 [57]فحارب معاوية عليا خمس سنين قال أبو عمر: صوابه أربع سنين 

الإستيعاب في معرفة الأصحاب (1417/3) دار الجيل

 

[58] وكان سبب قتله أن عبد الرحمن بن ملجم المرادي والبرك بن عبد الله التميمي (الصريمي وقيل اسم البرك الحجاج) وعمرو بن بكر التميمي السعدي وهم من الخوارج اجتمعوا فتذاكروا أمر الناس وعابوا عمل ولاتهم ثم ذكروا أهل النهر فترحموا عليهم وقالوا ما نصنع بالبقاء بعدهم؟ فلو شرينا أنفسنا وقتلنا أئمة الضلالة وأرحنا منهم البلاد! فقال ابن ملجم أنا أكفيكم عليا (وكان من أهل مصر) وقال البرك بن عبد الله أنا أكفيكم معاوية وقال عمرو بن بكر أنا أكفيكم عمرو بن العاص

الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (607/2) دار الحديث

 

[59] قال قدم الحسن بن علي على معاوية فقال له لأجيزنك بجائزة لم يجزها أحد كان قبلي فأعطاه أربعمائة ألف ألف ووفد إليه مرة الحسن والحسين فأجازهما على الفور بمائتي ألف وقال لهما ما أجاز بهما أحد قبلي فقال له الحسين ولم تعط أحدا أفضل منا وقال ابن أبي الدنيا حدثنا يوسف ابن موسى ثنا جرير عن مغيرة قال أرسل الحسن بن علي وعبد الله بن جعفر إلى معاوية يسألانه المال فبعث إليهما أو إلى كل منهما بمائة ألف فبلغ ذلك عليا فقال لهما ألا تستحيان؟ رجل نطعن في عينه غدوة وعشية تسألانه المال؟ فقالا بل حرمتنا أنت وجاد هولنا وروى الأصمعي قال وفد الحسن وعبد الله بن الزبير على معاوية فقال للحسن مرحبا وأهلا بابن رسول الله وأمر له بثلاثمائة ألف وقال لابن الزبير مرحبا وأهلا بابن عمه رسول الله وأمر له بمائة ألف وقال أبو مروان المرواني بعث معاوية إلى الحسن بن علي بمائة ألف فقسمها على جلسائه وكانوة عشرة فأصاب كل واحد عشرة آلاف

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (532/4) دار المعرفة 

 

[60] جمع الفوائد لإبن الفاسي (453/2) مكتبة ابن كثير

 

[61] وكان قد أرسل عبد الله بن عامر وعبد الرحمن بن سمرة بن حبيب بن عبد شمس إلى الحسن قبل وصول الكتاب ومعهما صحيفة بيضاء مختوم على أسفلها، وكتب إليه أن اشترط في هذه الصحيفة التي ختمت أسفلها ما شئت فهو لك فلما أتت الصحيفة إلى الحسن اشترط أضعاف الشروط التي سأل معاوية قبل ذلك وأمسكها عنده

الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (621/2) دار الحديث

 

[62] ثم تسمى بالخلافة بعد الحكمين ثم استقل لما صالح الحسن واجتمع عليه الناس فسمي ذلك العام عام الجماعة

الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة (d.856 AH) (1856/3) دار المعرفة

[63] وقال نعيم بن حماد:حدثنا ابن فضيل عن السري بن إسماعيل عن الشعبي حدثني سفيان بن الليل قال قلت للحسن بن علي لما قدم من الكوفة إلى المدينة يا مذل المؤمنين قال لا تقل ذلك فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول “لا تذهب الأيام والليالي حتى يملك معاوية” فعلمت أن أمر الله واقع فكرهت أن تهراق بيني وبينه دماء المسلمين 

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (526/4) دار المعرفة

 

[64] فأغزا معاوية أرض الروم ست عشرة غزوة

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (529/4) دار المعرفة

 

[65] وكان يغزو الروم في كل سنة مرتين مرة في الصيف ومرة في الشتاء

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (522/4) دار المعرفة

 

[66] وكان آخر ما أوصى به معاوية أن قال شد خناق الروم

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (522/4) دار المعرفة

 

[67] وفيها أو في التي بعدها أغزاه بلاد الروم فسار معه خلق كثير من كبراء الصحابة حتى حاصر القسطنطينية وقد ثبت في الصحيح “أول جيش يغزو القسطنطينية مغفور لهم”

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (522/4) دار المعرفة 

 

أم حرام بنت ملحان صحابية من الأنصار من أهل قباء كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا ذهب إلى قباء استراح عندها وهي خالة خادمه أنس بن مالك روى البخاري في كتاب الجهاد من صحيحه ومسلم في كتاب الإمارة عن أنس أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نامم عندها القيلولة ثم استيقظ وهو يضحك لأنه رأى ناسا من أمته غزاة في سبيل الله يركبون ثبج البحر – أي وسطه ومعظمه – ملوكا على الأسرة ثم وضع رأسه فنام واستيقظ وقد رأى مثل الرؤيا فقالت له أم حرام ادع الله أن يجعلني منهم فقال لها “أنت من الأولين” قال الحافظ ابن كثير يعني جيش معاوية حين غزا قبرص ففتحها سنة 27 أيام عثمان بن عفان وكانت معهم أم حرام في صحبة زوجها عبادة بن الصامت ومعهم من الصحابة أبو الدرداء وأبو ذر وغيرهما

حاشية العواصم من القواصم لمصطفى أبي المعاطي (215) دار الغد الجديد

 

[68] وقال الليث بن سعد فتح معاوية قيسارية سنة تسع عشرة في دولة عمر بن الخطاب وقال غيره وفتح قبرص سنة خمس وقيل سبع وقيل ثمان وعشرين في أيام عثمان

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (521/4) دار المعرفة

 

[69] قالوا وكان عام غزوة المضيق يعني مضيق القسطنطينية في سنة ثنتين وثلاثين في أيامه وكان هو الأمير على الناس عامئذ

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (521/4) دار المعرفة

 

[70] وفيها فتح عبد الرحمن بن سمرة الرخج وغيرها من بلاد سجستان وفيها افتتح عقبة بن نافع الفهري كورا من بلاد السودان وودان وهي من برقة وفيها شتى بسر بن أرطأة بأرض الروم مرابطا

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (387/2) دار الغرب الإسلامي

 

[71] وفيها غزا المهلب بن أبي صفرة أرض الهند، وسار إلى قندابيل، وكسر العدو وسلم وغنم وهي أول غزواته

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (388/2) دار الغرب الإسلامي

 

[72] وفيها غزا معاوية بن حديج إفريقية

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (388/2) دار الغرب الإسلامي

 

[73] وعن خالد بن معدان كان طويلا أبيض أجلح

الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة لإبن حجر (1856/3) دار المعرفة

 

 [74]وعن أسلم مولى عمر قال قدم علينا معاوية وهو أبيض الناس وأجملهم رواه الطبراني ورجاله رجال الصحيح غير مسلم بن جندب وهو ثقة

مجمع الزوائد (355/9) مكتبة القدسي

 

[75] وكان أول من اتخذ ديوان الخاتم

الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (66/3) دار الحديث

 

[76] وكان أول من كسا الكعبة الديباج واشترى لها العبيد

تاريخ اليعقوبي (283/2) مطبع بريل

 

[77] البداية والنهاية (514/4) دار المعرفة

 

 [78]البداية والنهاية (530/4) دار المعرفة

 

[79] منهاج السنة النبوية لإبن تيمية (233/6) جامعة الإمام محمد

 

[80] ورواه الأثرم: حدثنا محمد بن حواش حدثنا أبو هريرة المكتب قال كنا عند الأعمش فذكروا عمر بن عبد العزيز وعدله فقال الأعمش: فكيف لو أدركتم معاوية؟ قالوا في حلمه؟ قال لا والله بل في عدله

منهاج السنة النبوية لإبن تيمية (233/6) جامعة الإمام محمد

 

[81] قال كان معاوية يبعث رجلا يقال له أبو الجيش في كل يوم فيدور على المجالس يسأل هل ولد لأحد مولود؟ أو قدم أحد من الوفود؟ فإذا أخبر بذلك أثبت في الديوان يعني ليجري عليه الرزق

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (530/4) دار المعرفة

[82] مروج الذهب ومعادن الجوهر للمسعودي (31/3) المكتبة العصرية

[83] النجوم الزاهرة في ملوك مصر والقاهرة (64/1) وزارة الثقافة

 

وعن قبيصة بن جابر قال صحبت معاوية فما رأيت رجلا أثقل حلما ولا أبطأ جهلا ولا أبعد أناة منه

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (540/2) دار الغرب الإسلامي

 

[84] قال ابن عون كان الرجل يقول لمعاوية والله لتستقيمن بنا يا معاوية أو لنقومنك فيقول بماذا؟ فيقولون بالخشب فيقول إذا نستقيم

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (540/2) دار الغرب الإسلامي

 

 [85]قال فلما دخلت عليه حسبت أنه قال سلمت عليه فقال ما فعل طعنك على الأئمة يا مسور؟ قال قلت ارفضنا من هذا وأحسن فيما قدمنا له فقال لتكلمني بذات نفسك قال فلم أدع شيئا أعيبه عليه إلا أخبرته به فقال لا تبرأ من الذنوب فهل لك من ذنوب تخاف أن تهلكك إن لم يغفرها الله لك؟ قال قلت نعم! إن لي ذنوبا إن لم تغفرها هلكت بسببها قال: فما الذي يجعلك أحق بأن ترجو أنت المغفرة مني فوالله لما إلي من إصلاح الرعايا وإقامة الحدود والإصلاح بين الناس والجهاد في سبيل الله والأمور العظام التي لا يحصيها إلا الله ولا نحصيها أكثر مما تذكر من العيوب والذنوب وإني لعلى دين يقبل الله فيه الحسنات ويعفو عن السيئات والله على ذلك ما كنت لأخير بين الله وغيره إلا اخترت الله على غيره مما سواه فقال ففكرت حين قال لي ما قال فعرفت أنه قد خصمني قال فكان المسور إذا ذكره بعد ذلك دعا له بخير وقد رواه شعيب عن الزهري عن عروة عن المسور بنحوه

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (529/4) دار المعرفة

 

[86] تاريخ الطبري (157/2) مطبوعة حيدر آباد

 

[87] قال عبد الله بن عمير أغلظ لمعاوية رجل فأكثر فقيل له أتحلم عن هذا؟ فقال إني لا أحول بين الناس وبين ألسنتهم ما لم يحولوا بيننا وبين ملكنا

الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (67/3) دار الحديث

 

[88] Translator’s note: we have omitted the final part of this quote

 

لا أضع سيفي حيث يكفيني سوطي ولا أضع سوطي حيث يكفيني لساني ولو أن بيني وبين الناس شعرة ما انقطعت قيل وكيف يا أمير المؤمنين قال كانوا إذا مدوها خليتها وإذا خلوها مددتها 

تاريخ اليعقوبي (283/2) مطبع بريل

[89] وأرسل معه معاوية بن أبي سفيان فخرج معاوية راجلا معه ووائل بن حجر على ناقته راكبا فشكا إليه معاوية حر الرمضاء فقال له ابتعل ظل الناقة فقال معاوية وما يغني ذلك عني؟ لو جعلتني ردفك فقال له وائل اسكت فلست من أرداف الملوك وعاش وائل بن حجر حتى ولي معاوية الخلافة فدخل عليه وائل بن حجر فعرفه معاوية وأذكره بذلك ورحب به وأجازه لوفوده عليه فأبى من قبول جائزته وحبائه وأراد أن يرزقه فأبى من ذلك وقال يأخذه من هو أولى به مني فأنا في غنى عنه

الإستيعاب في معرفة الاصحاب (1563/4) دار الجيل

 

[90]ويا يزيد إذا دنا أجلي فول غسلي رجلا لبيبا فإن اللبيب من الله بمكان فلينعم الغسل وليجهر بالتكبير ثم اعمد إلى منديل في الخزانة فيه ثوب من ثياب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وقراضة من شعره وأظفاره فاستودع القراضة أنفي وفمي، وأذني وعيني واجعل ذلك الثوب مما يلي

جلدي دون لفافي…

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (150/8) دار إحياء التراث العربي

 

[91] تاريخ ابن خلدون (88/2) بيروت

 

[92] منهاج السنة النبوية (235/6) جامعة الإمام محمد

[93] وأخرج ابن أبي الدنيا وابن عساكر عن جبلة بن سحيم قال دخلت على معاوية بن أبي سفيان وهو في خلافته وهو في عنقه حبل وصبي يقوده فقلت له يا أمير المؤمنين أتفعل هذا؟ قال يا لكع اسكت فإني سمعت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول “من كان له صبي فليتصاب له”

تاريخ الخلفاء (153/1) مكتبة نزار

 

[94] وعن سليم بن عامر قال كان بين معاوية وبين الروم عهد وكان يسير نحو بلادهم حتى إذا انقضى العهد أغار عليهم فجاء رجل على فرس أو برذون وهو يقول الله أكبر الله أكبر وفاء لا غدر فنظر فإذا هو عمرو ابن عبسة فسأله معاوية عن ذلك فقال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول “من كان بينه وبين قوم عهد فلا يحلن عهدا ولا يشدنه حتى يمضي أمده أو ينبذ إليهم على سواء” قال فرجع معاوية بالناس رواه الترمذي وأبو داود

مشكاة المصابيح (1165/2) المكتب الإسلامي

 

[95] وقد قال أبو داود حدثنا سليمان بن عبد الرحمن الدمشقي ثنا يحيى بن حمزة ثنا ابن أبي مريم أن القاسم بن مخيمرة أخبره أن أبا مريم الأزدي أخبره قال دخلت على معاوية فقال ما أنعمنا بك أبا فلان وهي كلمة تقولها العرب فقلت حديث سمعته أخبرك به سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول “من ولاه الله شيئا من أمر المسلمين فاحتجب دون حاجتهم وخلتهم وفقرهم احتجب الله دون حاجته وخلته وفقره” قال فجعل معاوية حين سمع هذا الحديث رجلا على حوائج الناس

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (521/4) دار المعرفة

 

[96] قال سويد بن سعيد حدثنا ضمام بن إسماعيل بالإسكندرية سمعت أبا قبيل حيي بن هانئ يخبر عن معاوية وصعد المنبر يوم الجمعة فقال عند خطبته أيها الناس إن المال مالنا والفيء فيئنا من شئنا أعطينا ومن شئنا منعنا فلم يجبه أحد فلما كانت الجمعة الثانية قال مثل ذلك فلم يجبه أحد فلما كانت الجمعة الثالثة قال مثل مقالته فقام إليه رجل فقال كلا إنما المال مالنا والفيء فيئنا من حال بيننا وبينه حكمناه إلى الله بأسيافنا فنزل معاوية فأرسل إلى الرجل فأدخل عليه فقال القوم هلك ففتح معاوية الأبواب ودخل الناس فوجدوا الرجل معه على السرير فقال إن هذا أحياني أحياه الله سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول “ستكون أئمة من بعدي يقولون فلا يرد عليهم قولهم يتقاحمون في النار تقاحم القردة” وإني تكلمت فلم يرد علي أحد فخشيت أن أكون منهم ثم تكلمت الثانية فلم يرد علي أحد فقلت في نفسي إني من القوم ثم تكلمت الجمعة الثالثة فقام هذا فرد علي فأحياني أحياه الله فرجوت أن يخرجني الله منهم فأعطاه وأجازه هذا حديث حسن

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (540/2) دار الغرب الإسلامي

 

[97] وقال الإمام أحمد حدثنا مروان بن معاوية الفزاري ثنا حبيب بن الشهيد عن أبي مجلز قال خرج معاوية على الناس فقاموا له فقال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول “من أحب أن يتمثل له الرجال قياما فليتبوأ مقعده من النار”

البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (521/4) دار المعرفة

 

[98] البداية والنهاية لإبن كثير (530/4) دار المعرفة

 

[99] وروى الإمام أحمد في كتاب الزهد عن أبي شبل محمد بن هارون عن حسن بن واقع عن ضمرة بن ربيعة القرشي عن علي بن أبي حملة عن أبيه قال رأيت معاوية على المنبر بدمشق يخطب الناس وعليه ثوب مرقوع

حاشية العواصم من القواصم لمصطفى أبي المعاطي (217) دار الغد الجديد

 

[100] قال لما قدم عمر بن الخطاب الشام تلقاه معاوية في موكب عظيم فلما دنا من عمر قال له أنت صاحب الموكب؟ قال نعم يا أمير المؤمنين قال: هذا حالك مع ما بلغني من طول وقوف ذوي الحاجات ببابك؟ قال هو ما بلغك من ذلك قال ولم تفعل هذا؟ لقد هممت أن آمرك بالمشي حافيا إلى بلاد الحجاز قال يا أمير المؤمنين إنا بأرض جواسيس العدو فيها كثيرة فيجب أن نظهر من عز السلطان ما يكون فيه عز للإسلام وأهله ويرهبهم به فإن أمرتني فعلت وإن نهيتني انتهيت فقال له عمر يا معاوية ما سألتك عن شئ إلا تركتني في مثل رواجب الضرس لئن كان ما قلت حقا إنه لرأي أريت ولئن كان باطلا إنه لخديعة أديت قال فمرني يا أمير المؤمنين بما شئت قال: لا آمرك ولا أنهاك فقال رجل يا أمير المؤمنين ما أحسن ما صدر الفتى عما أوردته فيه؟! فقال عمر لحسن موارده ومصادره جشمناه ما جشمناه وفي رواية أن معاوية تلقى عمر حين قدم الشام ومعاوية في موكب كثيف فاجتاز بعمر وهو وعبد الرحمن بن عوف راكبان على حمار ولم يشعر بهما فقيل له: إنك جاوزت أمير المؤمنين فرجع فلما رأى عمر ترجل وجعل يقول له ما ذكرنا، فقال عبد الرحمن بن عوف ما أحسن ما صدر عما أوردته فيه يا أمير المؤمنين؟! فقال من أجل ذلك جشمناه ما جشمناه

البداية والنهاية (520/4) دار المعرفة

 

[101] جوامع السيرة ص320

 

 [102]الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة لإبن حجر (1856/3) دار المعرفة

 

[103] روي له عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مائة حديث وثلاثة وستون حديثا

تاريخ الخلفاء للسيوطي (148/1) مكتبة نزار

 

[104] وروى عنه من الصحابة ابن عباس وجرير البجلي ومعاوية بن حديج والسائب بن يزيد وعبد اللَّه بن الزبير والنعمان بن بشير وغيرهم ومن كبار التابعين مروان بن الحكم وعبد اللَّه بن الحارث بن نوفل وقيس بن أبي حازم وسعيد بن المسيب وأبو إدريس الخولانيّ

الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة لإبن حجر (1857/3) دار المعرفة

 

وعنه ابن عباس وسعيد بن المسيب وأبو صالح السمان والأعرج وسعيد بن أبي سعيد ومحمد بن سيرين وهمام بن منبه وعبد الله بن عامر اليحصبي والقاسم أبو عبد الرحمن وشعيب بن محمد والد عمرو بن شعيب وطائفة سواهم

تاريخ الإسلام للذهبي (540/2) دار الغرب الإسلامي

 

[105] عبيد بن شرية الجرهمي في زمان معاوية وأدرك النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ولم يسمع منه شيئا ووفد على معاوية بن أبي سفيان فسأله عن الاخبار المتقدمة وملوك العرب والعجم وسبب تبلبل الألسنة وأمر افتراق الناس في البلاد وكان استحضره من صنعاه اليمن فأجابه إلى ما أمر فأمر معاوية ان يدون وينسب إلى عبيد بن شرية

الفهرست لإبن النديم (118/1) دار المعرفة

[106] وذكر أن رجلا سأل من معاوية أن يساعده في بناء داره باثني عشر ألف جذع من الخشب فقال له معاوية أين دارك؟ قال بالبصرة قال وكم اتساعها؟ قال فرسخان في فرسخين قال لا تقل داري بالبصرة ولكن قل البصرة في داري

البداية والنهاية (536/4) دار المعرفة

 

[107] وقال العتبي قيل لمعاوية أسرع إليك الشيب؟ فقال كيف لا ولا أزال أرى رجلا من العرب قائما على رأسي يلقح لي كلاما يلزمني جوابه فإن أصبت لم أحمد وإن أخطأت سارت بها البرود

البداية والنهاية (535/4) دار المعرفة

 

[108] ولا خلاف أنه توفي بدمشق في رجب سنة ستين

البدابة والنهاية لإبن كثير (538/4) دار المعرفة

 

[109] وصلى عليه الضحاك

الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (64/3) دار الحديث

 

[110] واختلفوا في مدة عمره وكم عاش؟ فقال بعضهم مات يوم مات وهو ابن خمس وسبعين سنة ذكر من قال ذلك حدثني عمر قال حدثنا محمد بن يحيى قال أخبرني هشام بن الوليد قال قال ابن شهاب الزهري سألني الوليد عن أعمار الخلفاء فأخبرته أن معاوية مات وهو ابن خمس وسبعين سنة فقال بخ بخ! إن هذا لعمر وقال آخرون مات وهو ابن ثلاث وسبعين سنة ذكر من قال ذلك حدثني عمر قال حدثني أحمد بن زهير قال قال علي بن محمد مات معاوية وهو ابن ثلاث وسبعين قال ويقال ابن ثمانين سنة وقال آخرون توفي وهو ابن ثمان وسبعين سنة ذكر من قال ذلك حدثني الحارث قال حدثنا محمد بن سعد قال أخبرنا محمد بن عمر قال حدثني يحيى بن سعيد بن دينار عن أبيه قال توفي معاوية وهو ابن ثمان وسبعين سنة وقال آخرون توفي وهو ابن خمس وثمانين سنة حدثت بذلك عن هشام بن محمد أنه كان يقوله عن أبيه

تاريخ الطبري للطبري (325/5) دار التراث

 

[111] وقال صفوان بن عمرو وقف عبد الملك بقبر معاوية فوقف عليه فترحم فقال رجل قبر من هذا؟ فقال قبر رجل كان والله فيما علمته ينطق عن علم ويسكت عن حلم إذا أعطى أغنى وإذا حارب أفنى ثم عجل له الدهر ما أخره لغيره ممن بعده هذا قبر أبي عبد الرحمن معاوية

الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير (68/3) دار الحديث

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