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What are the main books for giving Fatwā according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab?

 
Question

Assalamu-Alaikum,

 

My questions are as follows:

 

1 – What are the most essential books of fatwa in the Hanafi school?

2 – I notice many Hanafi scholars using books of ulum al hadith that are in accordance with the other three schools of fiqh, could you please provide some sources of ulum al hadith that look at the science based on the Hanafi school?

Jazakallahu Khairan

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

At the outset, we wish to clarify that the field of Iftā is an incredibly delicate and complex field.[1] It requires for one to have a detailed understanding of Sharῑ’ah to issue a Fatwā. More importantly, one must study the field of Iftā under an expert teacher.

‘Allāmah Ibn ‘Abidῑn Raḥimahullah (d.1252 AH) writes:

وَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ فِيْ “فَتَاوَى الْعَلَّامَة ابْنِ حَجَر”: سُئِلَ فِيْ شَخْصٍ يَقْرَأُ وَيُطَالِعُ الْكُتُبَ الْفِقْهِيَّةَ بِنَفْسِهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ شَيْخٌ وَيُفْتِيْ وَيَعْتَمِدُ عَلَى مُطَالَعَتِهِ فِي الْكُتُبِ فَهَلْ يَجُوْزُ لَهُ ذَلِكَ أَمْ لَا؟

فَأَجَابَ بِقَوْلِهِ لَا يَجُوْزُ لَهُ الْإِفْتَاءُ بِوَجْهٍ مِّنَ الْوُجُوْهِ لِأَنَّهُ عَامِيٌّ جَاهِلٌ لَا يَدْرِيْ مَا يَقُوْلُ

Translation:

“Indeed I saw in the Fatāwā of ‘Allāmah Ibn Ḥajar that he was asked regarding a person who prays and studies the books of Fiqh on his own and does not have a teacher, he then gives a Fatwā relying upon his study of books, is this permissible for him?

He (Ibn Ḥajar) replied “it is not permissible for such a person to issue a Fatwā under any circumstance, for he is an ignorant layman who is unaware of what he is saying”

How is a Fatwā issued in accordance to the anaf Madhab?

Before presenting the essential books of Fatwā according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab, it is important to understand an underlying principle which outlines how a Fatwā is given according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab.

The fundamental rule for giving a Fatwā according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab is[2]:

“By default, Fatwā is given upon the rulings found in the books of āhir Al Riwāyah. However, if the Ḥanafῑ Fuqahā who were worthy of giving preference gave preference to a view that is contrary to what is found in the books of āhir Al Riwāyah, then Fatwā shall be given upon the view that the Ḥanafῑ Fuqahā who were worthy of giving preference have given preference to and not the view found in the books of āhir Al Riwāyah

The Important Books Required for Issuing a Fatwā According to the anaf Madhab

After understanding the fundamental rule mentioned above, it is understood that the important books for Fatwā according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab are of four types:

1)    The books of āhir Al Riwāyah

2)    The books written by the Ḥanafῑ Madhab who were worthy of giving preference

3)    The books of Al Mutūn Al Mu’tabarah (The Reliable Texts)

4)    The books written by the later scholars

We shall briefly list these 4 types of books.

The Books of āhir Al Riwāyah 

The books of āhir Al Riwāyah are the books written by Imām Muḥammad (d.189 AH) with the purpose of presenting the rulings of the Ḥanafῑ Madhab. In these books, Imām Muḥammad (d.189 AH) records the view of Imām Abū Ḥanῑfah (d.150 AH), Imām Abū Yūsuf (d.182 AH), and his personal view.

The āhir Al Riwāyah are five books in total[3]:

1)    Al Aṣl (in print)

2)    Al Jāmi’ Al Ṣaghῑr (in print)

3)    Al Jāmi’ Al Kabῑr (in print)

4)    Ziyādat and Ziyādat Al Ziyādāt (not in print)

5)    Al Siyar Al Kabῑr (not in print)

The Books written by the anaf Fuqahā who were Worthy of Giving Preference

These books include:

1)    Muntakab Al Fatāwā by Aḥmad Al Khassāf (d.261 AH) (manuscript)

2)    Al Kāfῑ by Ḥākim Al Shahῑd (d.334 AH) (manuscript)

3)    Mukhtaṣar Al Karkhῑ by Imām Al Karkhῑ (d.340 AH) (manuscript)

4)    Mukhtaṣar Al Ṭaḥāwῑ by Imām Abū Ja’far Al Ṭaḥāwῑ (321 AH) (in print)

5)    Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar Al Ṭaḥāwῑ by Abū Bakr Al Jasṣāṣ Al Rāzῑ (d.370 AH) (in print)

6)    ‘Uyūn Al Masāil by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH)[4] (in print)

7)    Fatāwā Al Nawāzil by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (manuscript)

8)    Al Muqaddimah Al Samarqandiyyah by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (manuscript)

9)    Khizānah Al Fiqh by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (in print)

10)   Mukhtalaf Al Riwāyah by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (in print)

11)   Muqaddimah Al Ṣalāh by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (manuscript)

12)   Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Kabῑr by Abū Layth Al Samarqandῑ (d.373 AH) (manuscript)

13)   Al Tajrῑd by Imām Al Qudūrῑ (d.428 AH) (in print)

14)   Mukhtaṣar Al Qudūrῑ by Imām Al Qudūrῑ (d.428 AH) (in print)

15)   Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar Al Karkhῑ by Imām Al Qudūrῑ (d.428 AH) (manuscript)

16)   Al Ajnās by Imām Al Nāṭifῑ (d.446 AH) (in print)

17)   Kitāb Jumal Al Aḥkām by Imām Al Nāṭifῑ (d.446 AH) (in print)

18)   Al Nutaf Fil Fatāwā by ‘Alῑ Al Saghdῑ (d.461 AH) (in print)

19)   Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar Al Qudūrῑ by Aḥmad Al Aqṭa’ (d.474 AH) (manuscript)

20)   Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar Al Ṭaḥāwῑ by Imām Aḥmad ibn Manṣūr Al Isbῑjābῑ (d.480 AH) (manuscript)

21)   Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr by Imām Aḥmad ibn Manṣūr Al Isbῑjābῑ (d.480 AH) (manuscript)

22)   Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr by Imām Al Bazdawῑ (d.482 AH) (manuscript)

23)   Sharḥ Al Jami’ Al Kabῑr by Imām Al Bazdawῑ (d.482 AH) (manuscript)

24)   Al Mabsūṭ by Shamsul A’immah Al Sarakhsῑ (d.483 AH) (in print)

25)   Sharḥ Al Siyar Al Kabῑr by Shamsul A’immah Al Sarakhsῑ (d.483 AH) (in print)

26)   Al Nukat Sharḥ Ziyādāt Al Ziyādāt by Shamsul A’immah Al Sarakhsῑ (d.483 AH) (in print)

27)   Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr by Shamsul A’immah Al Sarakhsῑ (d.483 AH) (manuscript)

28)   Sharḥ Mukhtasar Al Qudūrῑ by Abū Bakr Khwāhir Zādah (d.483 AH) (manuscript)

29)   Khizānatul Akmal by Yūsuf ibn ‘Alῑ Al Jurjānῑ (d.522 AH) (in print)

30)   Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr by ‘Allāmah Ṣadr Al Shahῑd (d.536 AH) (in print)

31)   Al Manẓūmah Fil Khilāfiyyāt by Najm Al Dῑn Al Nasafῑ (d.537 AH) (in print)

32)   Tuḥfah Al Fuqahā by ‘Ala Al Dῑn Al Samarqandῑ (d.539 AH) (in print)

33)   Sharḥ Al Siyar Al Kabῑr by ‘Ala Al Dῑn Al Samarqandῑ (d.539 AH) (manuscript)

34)   Al Fatāwā Al Walwāljiyyah by ‘Abdul Rashῑd Al Walwāljῑ (d.540 AH) (in print)

35)   Al Multaqaṭ Fil Fatāwā Al Ḥanafiyyah by Nāṣir Al Dῑn Al Samarqandῑ (d.556 AH) (in print)

36)   Al Fiqh Al Nāfi’ by Nāṣir Al Dῑn Al Samarqandῑ (d.556 AH) (in print)

37)   Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr by Al Kardarῑ (d.562 AH) (manuscript)

38)   Jawāhir Al Fatāwā by Muhammad ibn Abd Al Rashid Al Kirmani (d.565 AH) (manuscript)

39)   Al Fatāwā Al Sirājiyyah by Sirāj Al Dῑn Al Awshῑ (d.569 AH) (in print)

40)   Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr by Aḥmad Al ‘Attābῑ (d.586 AH) (manuscript)

41)   Jawāmi’ Al Fiqh by Aḥmad Al ‘Attābῑ (d.586 AH) (manuscript)

42)   Sharḥ Al Ziyādāt by Aḥmad Al ‘Attābῑ (d.586 AH) (manuscript)

43)   Badāi’ Al Ṣanāi’ by ‘Alā Al Dῑn Al Kāsānῑ (d.587 AH) (in print)

44)   Zād Al Fuqahā Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar Al Qudūrῑ by Imām Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al Isbῑjābῑ (d.591 AH) (manuscript)

45)   Sharḥ Al Ziyādāt by Imām Qāḍῑ Khān (d.592 AH) (in print)

46)   Fatāwā Qādhῑ Khān by Imām Qāḍῑ Khān (d.592 AH) (in print)

47)   Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr by Imām Qāḍῑ Khān (d.592 AH) (manuscript)

48)   Al Hidāyah Sharḥ Bidāyah Al Mubtadῑ by ‘Allāmah Abū Bakr Al Murghῑnānῑ (d.593 AH) (in print)

49)   Mukhtārāt Al Nawāzil by ‘Allāmah Abū Bakr Al Murghῑnānῑ (d.593 AH) (in print)

50)   Al Tajnῑs Wal Mazῑd by ‘Allāmah Abū Bakr Al Murghῑnānῑ (d.593 AH) (in print)

51)   Al Ḥāwῑ Al Qudsῑ by Aḥmad ibn Maḥmūd Al Ghaznawῑ (d.593 AH) (in print)

52)   Khulāṣah Al Dalāil Fῑ Tanqῑḥ Al Masāil by Ḥusām Al Dῑn Al Rāzῑ (d.598 AH) (in print)

53)   Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Saghῑr by Ḥusām Al Dῑn Al Rāzῑ (d.598 AH) (manuscript)

54)   Al Muḥῑṭ Al Burhānῑ by Burhān Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ (d.616 AH) (in print)

55)   Khulāṣah Al Fatāwā by Ṭāhir ibn ‘Abd Al Rashῑd Al Bukhārῑ (d.post 600 AH) (in print)

56)   Al Wajῑz Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Kabῑr by Al Haṣῑrῑ (d.636 AH) (manuscript)

57)   Al Taḥrῑr Fῑ Sharḥ Al Jāmi’ Al Kabῑr by Al Haṣῑrῑ (d.636 AH) (manuscript) 

58)   Al Taysῑr Bi Ma’ānῑ Al Jāmi’ Al Kabῑr by Abū ‘Abdillah Al Khalāṭi (d.652 AH) (manuscript) 

59)   Al Wiqāyah by Maḥmūd ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Ubaydillah Al Maḥbūbῑ (d.673 AH) (in print)

60)   Al Kāfῑ Sharḥ Al Wāfῑ by Ḥāfidh Al Dῑn Al Nasafῑ (d.710 AH) (manuscript)

61)   Al Muṣaffā Sharḥ Munẓuūmah Al Khilāfiyyāt by Ḥāfidh Al Dῑn Al Nasafῑ (d.710 AH) (manuscript)

62)   Al Mustaṣfā Sharḥ Al Fiqh Al Nāfi’ by Ḥāfidh Al Dῑn Al Nasafῑ (d.710 AH) (manuscript)

63)   Fatḥ Al Qadῑr by Ibn Al Hummām (d.861 AH) (in print)

Al Mūtun Al Mu’tabarah (The Reliable Texts)

The Al Mutūn Al Mu’tabarah (Reliable Texts) are books written with the purpose of compiling the views of āhir Al Riwāyah.[5] They are six in total:

1)    Mukhtaṣar Al Qudūrῑ by Imām Al Qudūrῑ (d.428 AH) (in print)

2)    Al Mukhtār by ‘Abdullah Al Mawṣilῑ (d.683 AH) (in print)

3)    Al Wiqāyah by Maḥmūd ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Ubaydillah Al Maḥbūbῑ (d.673 AH) (in print)

4)    Kanz Al Daqāiq by Ḥāfidh Al Dῑn Al Nasafῑ (d.710 AH) (in print)

5)    Al Nuqāyah by ‘Ubaydullah ibn Mas’ūd ibn Maḥmūd Al Maḥbūbῑ (d.747 AH) (in print)

6)    Multaqā Al Abhur by Ibrāhῑm Al Ḥalabῑ (d.956 AH) (in print)

The Books Written by the Later Fuqahā

These book include:

1)    Al Masālik Fil Manāsik by Muḥammad Al Kirmānῑ (d.597 AH) (in print)

2)    Kitāb Al Yanābῑ’ Fi Ma’rifah Al Uṣūl Wal Tafārῑ’ by Al Rūmῑ (he was alive in 616 AH) (manuscript)

3)    Al Fatāwā Al Ẓahῑriyyah by Ẓahῑr Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ (d.619 AH) (manuscript)

4)    Jāmi’ Aḥkām Al Ṣighār by Muḥammad ibn Maḥmūd Al Asrūshnῑ (d.632 AH) (in print)

5)    Al Mujtabā Sharḥ Al Qudūrῑ by Najm Al Dῑn Al Zāhidῑ (d.658 AH) (manuscript)

6)    Qunyah Al Munyah Li Tatmῑm Al Ghunyah by Najm Al Dῑn Al Zāhidῑ (d.658 AH) (in print)

7)    Kitāb Al Manāfi’ Fi Fawāid Al Nāfi’ by Al Rāmishῑ (d.666 AH) (manuscript)

8)    Tuḥfah Al Mulūk by Zayn Al Dῑn Al Rāzῑ (d.666 AH)  (in print)

9)    Al Ikhtiyār Li Ta’lῑl Al Mukhtār by ‘Abdullah Al Mawṣilῑ (d.683 AH) (in print)

10) Ḥāshiyah ‘Alal Hidayah by Abū Muḥammad Al Kabbāzῑ (d.691 AH) (manuscript)

11) Majma’ Al Baḥrain by Aḥmad ibn ‘Alῑ Al Sā’ātῑ (d.694 AH) (in print)

12) Niṣāb Al Iḥtisāb by ‘Umar ibn Muḥammad Al Sanāmῑ (ca.700 AH-725 AH) (in print)

13)   Al Fatāwā Al Ghiyāthiyyah by Dāwūd ibn Yūsuf Al Khatῑb (ca.700 AH – 800 AH) (in print)

14)   Al Nihāyah Sharḥ Al Hidāyah by Ḥusain ibn ‘Alῑ Al Saghnāqῑ (d.710 AH) (manuscript)

15)   Al Ghāyah Sharḥ Al Hidāyah by Aḥmad Al Sarūjῑ (d.710 AH) (manuscript)

16)   Tabyῑn Al Ḥaqāiq by ‘Uthmān Al Zayla’ῑ’ (d.743 AH) (in print)

17)   Sharḥ Al Wiqāyah by ‘Ubaydullah ibn Mas’ūd Al Maḥbūbῑ (d.747 AH) (in print)

18)   ‘Uyūn Al Madhāhib by Qiwām Al Dῑn Al Kākῑ (d.749 AH) (in print)

19)   Mi’rāj Al Dirāyah Sharḥ Al Hidayah by Qiwām Al Dῑn Al Kākῑ (d.749 AH) (manuscript)

20)   Ghāyah Al Bayān Sharḥ Al Hidāyah by Qiwām Al Dῑn Al Itqānῑ (d.758 AH) (manuscript)

21)   Al Fatāwā Al Ṭarsūsiyyah by Najm Al Dῑn Al Ṭarsūsῑ (d.758 AH) (in print)

22)   Al Manba’ Fῑ Sharḥ Al Majma’ by ‘Aintābῑ (d.767 AH)

23)   Al Fatāwā Al Tātārkhāniyyah by Farῑd Al Dῑn Al Andarpatῑ (d.786 AH) (in print)

24)   Jawāhir Al Fiqh by Ṭāhir Al Khawārizmῑ (he finished writing the book in 771 AH) (manuscript)

25)   Al ‘Inayah Sharḥ Al Ḥidāyah by Akmal Al Dῑn Al Bābartῑ (d.786 AH) (in print)

26)   Al Jawharah Al Nayyirah by Abū Bakr Al Ḥaddād (d.800 AH) (in print)

27)   Al Tashῑl Sharḥ Laṭāif Al Ishārāt by Imām Ibn Qādhῑ Samāwinah (d.823 AH) (in print)

28)   Jāmi’ Al Fuṣūlayn by Imām Ibn Qādhῑ Samāwinah (d.823 AH) (in print)

29)   Al Fatāwā Al Bazāziyyah by Muḥammad Al Kurdῑ Al Bazāzῑ (d.827 AH) (in print)

30)   Fatāwā Qārῑ Al Hidāyah by Sirāj Al Dῑn Abū Hafs ‘Umar (d.829 AH) (in print)

31)   Al Baḥr Al ‘Amῑq by Ibn Ḍiyā Al Makkῑ (d.854 AH) (in print)

32)   Sharḥ Al Wiqāyah by Ibn Malak (d.854 AH) (manuscript)

33)   Al Bināyah Sharḥ Al Hidāyah by Badr Al Dῑn Al ‘Aynῑ (d.855 AH) (in print)

34)   Ramz Al Ḥaqāiq Sharḥ Kanz Al Daqāiq by Badr Al Dῑn Al ‘Aynῑ (d.855 AH) (in print)

35)   Minḥah Al Sulūk Sharḥ Kitāb Tuḥfah Al Mulūk by Badr Al Dῑn Al ‘Aynῑ (d.855 AH) (in print)

36)   Jāmi’ Al Fatāwā by Amῑr Al Ḥumaydῑ (d.860 AH) (manuscript)

37)   Ḥalbah Al Majallῑ Sharḥ Munyah Al Muṣallῑ by Ibn Amῑr Al Ḥāj (d.879 AH) (in print)

38)   Al Taṣḥῑḥ Wal Tarjῑḥ by Qāsim ibn Quṭlūbugāh (d.879 AH) (in print)

39)   Mūjibāt Al Aḥkām Wa Wāqi’āt Al Ayyām by Qāsim ibn Quṭlūbugāh (d.879 AH) (in print)

40)   Durar Al Ḥukkām by Mullā Kusrow (d.885 AH) (in print)

41)   Dhakῑrah Al ‘Uqbā by Yūsuf Al Tawqātῑ (d.905 AH) (manuscript)

42)   Mustakhlaṣ Al Ḥaqāiq Sharḥ Kanz Al Daqāiq by Ibrāhῑm Al Qārῑ (he was alive in 907 AH) (manuscript)

43)   Sharḥ Manẓūmah ibn Wahbān by Ibn Shaḥnah (d.921 AH) (in print)

44)   Fatāwā Mu’ayyid Zādah by ‘Abd Al Raḥman Al Amāsῑ (d.922 AH) (manuscript)

45)   Mawāhib Al Raḥmān by Ibrāhῑm Al Ṭarāblisῑ (d.922 AH)

46)   Al Is’āf Fῑ Aḥkām Al Awqāf by Ibrāhῑm Al Ṭarāblisῑ (d.922 AH)

47)   Al Burhān Sharḥ Mawāhib Al Raḥmān by Ibrāhῑm Al Ṭarāblisῑ (d.922 AH)

48)   Mafātῑḥ Al Jinān Sharḥ Shir’ah Al Islām by Ya’qūb ib Sayyid (d.931 AH) (in print)

49)   Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar Al Wiqāyah by Barjandῑ (d.932 AH) (manuscript)

50)   Mikhzan Al Fiqh by Almāsῑ (d.938 AH) (manuscript)

51)   Ḥāshiyah Sa’dῑ Chalpῑ by Sa’dῑ Chalpῑ (d.945 AH) (manuscript)

52)   Jāmi’ Al Rumūz by Al Quhistānῑ (ca. 953 AH) (in print)

53)   Ghunyah Al Mutamallῑ Sharḥ Munyah Al Muṣallῑ by Ibrāhῑm Al Ḥalabῑ (d.956 AH) (in print)

54)   Al Baḥrur Rāiq by Ibn Nujaym Al Miṣrῑ (d.970 AH) (in print)

55)   Natā’ij Al Afkār Fῑ Kashf Al Rumūz Wal Asrār by Qāḍῑ Zādah (d.988 AH)

56)   Majral Anhur ‘Alā Multaqal Abhur by Al Bāqānῑ (d.1003 AH) (manuscript)

57)   Al Nahrul Fāiq by ‘Umar Ibn Nujaym Al Miṣrῑ (d.1005 AH) (in print)

58)   Fatāwā Al Tumurtāshῑ by Muḥammad Al Tumurtāshῑ (d.1007 AH) (in print)

59)   Mu’ῑn Al Muftῑ ‘An Jawāb Al Mustaftῑ by Muḥammad Al Tumurtāshῑ (d.1007 AH) (in print)

60)   Minaḥul Ghaffār Sharḥ Tanwῑr Al Abṣār by Muḥammad Al Tumurtāshῑ (d.1007 AH) (manuscript)

61)   Fatḥ Bāb Al ‘Ināyah by Mullā ‘Alῑ Al Qārῑ (d.1014 AH) (in print)

62)   Ḥāshiyah Irshād Al Sārῑ by Mullā ‘Alῑ Al Qārῑ (d.1014 AH) (in print)

63)   Fatāwā Al Askūbῑ by Bῑr Muḥammad Al Qusṭumūnῑ (d.1020 AH) (manuscript)

64)   Majma’ Al Ḍamānāt by Abū Yūsuf Al Baghdādῑ (d.1030 AH) (in print)

65)   Al Fatāwā Al Ibrāhῑmiyyah by Ibrāhῑm ibn Ḥasan (d.1047 AH) (in print)

66)   Hadiyyah ibn Al ‘Ammād by Al ‘Ibād Al ‘Amādῑ (d.1051 AH) (in print)

67)   Fatāwā Yaḥyā Affendῑ by Yaḥyā Effendῑ (d.1053 AH) (manuscript)

68)   Imdād Al Fattāḥ by Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Al Shurunbulālῑ (d.1069 AH) (in print)

69)   Sabῑl Al Falāḥ by Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Al Shurunbulālῑ (d.1069 AH) (in print)

70)   Taysῑr Al Maqāṣid by Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Al Shurunbulālῑ (d.1069 AH) (in print)

71)   Marāqil Falāḥ by Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Al Shurunbulālῑ (d.1069 AH) (in print)

72)   Ḥāshiyah ‘Alā Durar Al Ḥukkām  by Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Al Shurunbulālῑ (d.1069 AH) (in print)

73)   Majma’ Al Anhur Sharḥ Multaqā Al Abhur by Imām Shaykhῑ Zadah (d.1078 AH) (in print)

74)   Al Fatāwā Al Khayriyyah by Khayr Al Dῑn Al Ramlῑ (d.1081 AH) (in print)

75)   Al Fatāwā Al Hindiyyah compiled between 1077 AH to 1086 AH (in print)

76)   Al Durr Al Mukhtār by ‘Alā Al Dῑn Al Ḥaṣkafῑ (d.1088 AH) (in print)

77)   Al Dur Al Muntaqā by ‘Alā Al Dῑn Al Ḥaṣkafῑ (d.1088 AH) (in print)

78)   Al Fatāwā Al Anqarawiyyah by Muḥammad Al Anqrawῑ (d.1098 AH) (in print)

79)   Al Fatāwā Al As’adiyyah by As’ad Al Madanῑ (d.1116 AH) (in print)

80)   Nihāyah Al Murād by ‘Abdul Ghanῑ Al Nablūsῑ (d.1143 AH) (in print)

81)   Al Fatāwā Al Hammādiyyah by Rukn ibn Ḥusām Al Nāghorῑ (d. na)

82)   Rashaḥāt Al Aqlām Sharḥ Kifāyah Al Ghulām by ‘Abdul Ghanῑ Al Nablūsῑ (d.1143 AH) (in print)

83)   Al Fatāwā Al Iqnā’iyyah by ‘Abdul Ḥamῑd Al Sibā’ῑ’ (d.1220 AH) (in print)

84)   Ḥāshiyah Al Ṭaḥṭāwῑ ‘Alā Marāqil Falāḥ by ‘Allāmah Taḥtāwῑ (d.1231 AH) (in print)

85)   Ḥāshiyah Al Ṭaḥṭāwῑ ‘Alā Dur Al Mukhtār by ‘Allāmah Taḥtāwῑ (d.1231 AH) (in print)

86)   Radd Al Muḥtār by Ibn ‘Abidῑn Al Shāmῑ (d.1252 AH) (in print)

87)   Tanqῑḥ Al Fatāwā Al Ḥāmidiyyah by Ibn ‘Abidῑn Al Shāmῑ (d.1252 AH) (in print)

88)   Al Lubāb Fῑ Sharḥ Al Kitāb by ‘Abdul Ghanῑ Al Maydānῑ (d.1298 AH) (in print)

89)   ‘Umdah Al Ri’āyah Sharḥ Sharḥ Al Wiqāyah by ‘Allāmah ‘Abdul Ḥayy Al Lucknawῑ (d.1304 AH) (in print)

90)   Majallah Al Aḥkām Al ‘Adliyyah by the scholars of the Ottoman Empire (in print)

91)   Sharḥ Majallah Al Aḥkām by Khālid Al Atāsῑ (d.1326 AH) (in print)

92)   Durar Al Ḥukkām by ‘Alῑ Ḥaidar (d.1321 AH) (in print)

An Important Point to Remember

When looking for the ruling of a Mas’alah according to the Ḥanafῑ Madhab, it is important for one to maintain the order mentioned above; starting with āhir Al Riwāyah and moving down to the books of the later Fuqahā.

After one has checked all of the above, he should refer to the books written by the Fuqahā of the Indian Sub-continent.

The purpose behind researching the books written by the Fuqahā of the Indian Sub-continent is to compare and analyse the manner in which one has understood the Mas’alah with how the Fuqahā of the Indian Sub-continent understood it.

The Books Written by the Scholars of the Indian Sub-continent

1)    Fatāwā Rashῑdiyyah by Maulānā Rashῑd Aḥmad Gangohῑ (d.1323 AH)

2)    Imdādul Fatāwā by Ḥaḍrat Thānwῑ (d.1362 AH)

3)    Kifāyatul Muftῑ by Muftῑ Kifāyatullah (d.1372 AH)

4)    Fatāwā Khayriyyah by Muftῑ Khair Muḥammad Jālandhrῑ (d.1391 AH)

5)    Imdādul Aḥkām by Muftῑ Ẓafar Aḥmad ‘Uthmānῑ (d.1394 AH)

6)    Jawāhir Al Fiqh by Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ (d.1396 AH)

7)    Fatāwā Maḥmūdiyyah by Muftῑ Maḥmūd Ḥasan Gangohῑ (d.1417 AH)

8)    Muntakabul Fatāwā by Muftῑ Nizāmud Dῑn A’zamῑ (d.1420 AH)

9)    Fatāwā Raḥῑmiyyah by Muftῑ ‘Abdul Raḥῑm Lājpūrῑ (d.1422 AH)

10)   Aḥsanul Fatāwā by Muftῑ Rashῑd Aḥmad Ludhiyānwῑ (d.1422 AH)

11)   Aap Kei Masāil Aur Unkā Ḥal by Maulānā Yūsuf Ludhiyānwῑ

12)   Fatāwā Dārul ‘Ulūm Deoband

13)   Maḥmūdul Fatāwā by Muftῑ Aḥmad Khānpūrῑ

14)   Fatāwā Dῑniyyah by Muftῑ Isma’ῑl Kacholwῑ

Important Books on anaf Uūl Al adth

The important books written on Ḥanafῑ Uṣūl Al Ḥadῑth include:

1)    Dirāsātun Fῑ Uṣūl Al Ḥadῑth ‘Alā Manhaj Al Ḥanafiyyah by ‘Abdul Majῑd Al Tarkamānῑ

2)    Taqwῑm Al Adillah Fῑ Usūl Al Fiqh; section on Al Sunnah by Abu Zayd Al Dabusi (d.430 AH)

3)    Uṣūl Al Sarakhsῑ; section on Al Sunnah by Shamsul A’immah Al Sarakhsῑ (d.483 AH)

4)    Kashf Al Asrār Sharḥ Uṣūl Al Bazdawῑ by ‘Alā Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ (d.730 AH)

5)    Al Talwῑḥ Sharḥ Al Tawḍῑḥ; section on Al Sunnah by Sa’d Al Dῑn Al Taftāzānῑ (d.792 AH)

6)    Al Taqrῑr Wal Taḥbῑr Sharḥ Al Taḥrῑr; section on Al Sunnah by Ibn Amῑr Al Ḥāj (d.879 AH)

7)    Nūrul Anwār; section on Al Sunnah by Mullā Jῑwan (d.1130 AH)

8)    Al Muwāzanah Bayn Manhajil Ḥanafiyyah Wa Manhaj Al Muḥaddithῑn Fῑ Qubūl Al Aḥādῑth Wa Raddihā by ‘Adnān ‘Alῑ Al Khiḍr

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mu’ādh Chati

Student Darul Iftaa
Blackburn, England, UK

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.


[1] I am currently working on a thesis detailing Hanafi Usul Al Ifta, the thesis contains valuable notes and explanations from my teachers and various books that I am researching. I humbly request all readers to make du’a that I am able to complete it soon and that Allah grants it acceptance. Insha’Allah, once complete, it shall be uploaded to www.darulahnaaf.com.

 

[2] اعلم بأن الواجب اتباع ما- ترجيحه عن أهله قد علم- أو كان ظاهر الرواية ولم- يرجحوا خلاف ذاك فاعلم

…وقولي “أو كان ظاهر الرواية الخ” معناه أن ما كان من المسائل في الكتب التي رويت عن محمد بن الحسن رضي الله عنه رواية ظاهرة يفتى به وإن لم يصرحوا بتصحيحه نعم لو صححوا رواية أخرى من غير كتب ظاهر الرواية يتبع ما صححوه

 

[3] There is a difference of opinion between the Ḥanafῑ Fuqahā over the number of books that compose the āhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية):

 

1)     ‘Allāmah ‘Abdul Ḥayy Lucknawῑ has recorded a view in his introduction to Al Hidāyah that the books of āhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) are 3; Al Aṣl (الأصل), Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات) and Al Muḥῑt (المحيط) Na’ῑm Ashraf has stated that this was the view of Mῑr Jān Al Hyderabādῑ.

)This view is extremely weak)

 

2)     The books of āhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) are 4

The Fuqahā who have adopted this view now differ over the names of these 4 books:

 

  • According to ‘Allāmah Itqānῑ, ‘Allāmah Bābartῑ and Qādhῑ Zādah, they are: Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr (الجامع الصغير), Al Jāmi’ Al Kābr (الجامع الكبير), Al Al (الأصل), Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات)

 

  • According to ‘Allāmah Jurjānῑ and Muḥammad ‘Alῑ Al Thānwῑ, they are: Al Al (الأصل), Al Jāmi’ Al Kābr (الجامع الكبير), Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr (الجامع الصغير), Al Siyar Al Kabr (السير الكبير)

 

(This view is weak as Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات)is an established book of the āhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية))

 

3)     According to ‘Allāmah Ibn Kamāl Bāshā, ‘Allāmah Ṭashkūprῑ Zādah, ‘Allāmah Ibn Al Hanā’ῑ’ (in one view), ‘Allāmah Taqῑ Al Dῑn Al Tamῑmῑ, ‘Allāmah Bῑrῑ Zādah, ‘Allāmah Hamawῑ, ‘Abdul Walῑ ibn ‘Abdillah Al Maghribῑ Al Dimyāṭῑ, Imām Al Kafawῑ and the author of Al Muḍmarāt, the books of āhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) are 5; Al Aṣl (الأصل), Al Jāmi’ Al Kābr (الجامع الكبير), Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr (الجامع الصغير),  Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات), Al Siyar Al Kabr (السير الكبير)

 

The researchers of Nāẓūratul Ḥaq have stated that the statements of Burhān Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ (d.616 AH) indicate that he was also of this view.

 

Note: Muft usain Kadodia Ṣāḥib, ‘Allāmah Luayy Al Khalῑlῑ, and Muḥammad Bwenūkālin have also given preference to the view that the books of āhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) are 5, considering that Al Siyar Al Saghr (السير الصغير) is actually a part of Al Aṣl (الأصل). The researchers of Nāẓūratul Ḥaq have preferred this view stating that Al Siyar Al Saghir (السير الصغير) is actually the chapter Al Siyar found in Al Aṣl (الأصل). It was only considered a separate book once Imam Muhammad wrote Al Siyar Al Kabr (السير الكبير) and thus a differentiation was needed between it and the chapter Al Siyar, found in Al Aṣl (الأصل).

 

The researchers of Nāẓūratul Ḥaq have presented two evidences that indicate Al Siyar Al Saghir as being a part of Al Asl:

 

  • Imām Qudūrῑ has quoted Al Siyar Al Saghr (السير الصغير) in his commentary upon Mukhtasar Al Karkh (مختصر الكرخي). When this quotation is compared to what Imam Muhammad has written in the chapter of Al Siyar (السير) in Al Aṣl (الأصل), the quotation matches exactly with what is written in the chapter of Al Siyar in Al Asl (الأصل).

 

  • Ḥākim Al Shahῑd has written an abridgement of Al Aṣl (الأصل) titled Al Kāf. In Al Kāf (الكافي), he has labelled the (abridged) chapter of Al Siyar (السير) with the name Kitāb Al Siyar Al Saghr (السير الصغير)

 

In his commentary upon Sharḥ ‘Uqūd Rasmil Muftῑ, titled Is’ādul Muftῑ, Dr. Ṣalāḥ Abul Ḥāj has provided three more evidences that indicate Al Siyar Al Saghr (السير الصغير) as being a part of Al Aṣl (الأصل):

 

  • The author of Kashf Al unūn has related from the books Al Manthūrah who states:

 

الْكُتُبُ الَّتِيْ هِيَ ظَاهِرُ الرِّوَايَةِ لِمُحَمَّدٍ خَمْسَةٌ الْجَامِعُ الصَّغِيْرُ وَالْمَبْسُوْطُ وَالْجَامِعُ الْكَبِيْرُ وَالزِّيَادَاتُ وَالسِّيَرُ الْكَبِيْرُ

“The books of āhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) of Imām Muḥammad are five; Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr (الجامع الصغير), Al Mabsut (المبسوط), Al Jāmi’ Al Kābr (الجامع الكبير), Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات) and Al Siyar Al Kabr (السير الكبير)”

 

  • When ‘Allāmah Burhān Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ discusses his method in his book, Al Muṭ Al Burhān, he states:

 

جَمَعْتُ مَسَائِلَ الْمَبْسُوْطِ وَالْجَامِعَيْنِ وَالسِّيَرٍ وَالزِّيَادَاتِ وَأَلْحَقْتُ بِهِ مَسَائِلَ النَّوَادِرَ

“I have gathered the Masail of Al Mabsut (المبسوط), the two Al Jāmi’ (Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr (الجامع الصغير) and Al Jāmi’ Al Kābr (الجامع الكبير)), Al Siyar (السير) and Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات). I have then added to this the Masāil of Al Nawādir (النوادر)”

 

Hence, ‘Allāmah Burhān Al Dῑn Al Bukhārῑ did not mention Al Siyar Al Saghr (السير الصغير) as a separate book.

 

  • ‘Allāmah Tashkūpri Zādah has not mentioned Al Siyar Al Saghr (السير الصغير) as from amongst the āhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية)

 

4)     According to ‘Allāmah Ibn Nujaym, ‘Allāmah Ibnul Hanā’ῑ’ (in one view), ‘Allāmah Ṭaḥṭāwῑ, ‘Allāmah Ibn ‘Abidῑn, ‘Allāmah Lucknawῑ, Muḥammad Bakhῑt Al Muti’ῑ’, Abū Zuhrā, Muftῑ ‘Amῑmul Ihsān, Al Qasmῑ, Muftῑ Taqῑ Uthmānῑ, Muḥammad Mahrūs Al Mudarris and Aḥmād Al Naqῑb, the books of āhir Al Riwāyah (ظاهر الرواية) are 6; Al Al (الأصل), Al Jāmi’ Al Kabr (الجامع الكبير), Al Jāmi’ Al Saghr (الجامع الصغير), Al Ziyādāt (الزيادات), Al Siyar Al Kabr (السير الكبير), Al Siyar Al Saghr (السير الصغير).

(Summarised from ‘Asbābu ‘Udūl Al anafiyyah ‘Anil Futyā Bi ahir Al Riwāyah’ p.49 – p.55 Dārul Fat)

 

[4] Hafidh Al Dhahabi has preferred the view that he passed away in 375, whilst Qasim ibn Qutlubugah claims that he passed away in 393 AH.

[5] اعلم أنه قد اشتهر أن المتون موضوعة لنقل أصل المذهب ومسائل ظاهر الرواية وهذا حكم غالبي لا كلي فإنه كثيرا ما يذكر أرباب المتون مسألة هي من تخريجات المشايخ المتقدمين مخالفة لمسلك الأئمة كمسألة العشر في العشر في باب نجاسة الحوص وطهارته فإنها من تحديدات المشايخ وأصل المذهب خال عن هذا وكذا ما اشتهر أن المتون موضوعة لنقل مذهب الإمام أبي حنيفة فهو حكم غالبي لا أكثري فكثيرا ما ذكروا فيها مذهب صاحبيه إذا كان راجحا كما في بحث السجدة بالجبهة والأنف وغيره

إسعاد المفتي لصلاح أبي الحاج (278) دار البشائر الإسلامية

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