Rasūlullāh ﷺ did not marry Mariyah al-Qibtiyyah, rather she was a concubine who was given to him by al-Muqawqis, the ruler of Egypt. That took place after the treaty of al-Hudaybiyah. Mariyah al-Qibtiyyah was a Christian, then she became Muslim.
Ibn Sa’d said:
Rasūlullāh ﷺ lodged her – meaning Mariyah al-Qibtiyya and her sister – with Umm Sulaym bint Milhaan, and Rasūlullāh ﷺ entered upon them and told them about Islam. He took Mariyah as a concubine and moved her to some property of his in al-‘Awaali… and she became a good Muslim.
It should be noted that
Mariyah رضي الله عنها was one of Rasūlullāh ﷺ’s concubines not one of his wives. *The Mothers of the Believers/Ummahatul Mu’mineen are the wives of Rasūlullāh* ﷺ
Ibn al-Qayyim said:
Abu ‘Ubaydah said: He had four (concubines): Mariyah, who was the mother of his son Ibrahim; Rayhanah; another slave woman whom he acquired as a prisoner of war; and a slave woman who was given to him by Zaynab bint Jahsh رضي الله عنها
💕Mariya Al Qibtiyya was born in upper Egypt of a Coptic father and Greek mother and moved to the court of the Muqawqis when she was still very young. She arrived in Madina to join Rasūlullāh ﷺ household just after Rasūlullāh ﷺ’s returned from the treaty with Quraish which was contracted at al-Hudaybiyya. Mariya gave birth to a healthy son in 9 AH, the same year that his daughter Zaynab died, and Rasūlullāh ﷺ named his new son Ibrahim.💙Unfortunately, when he was only eighteen months old, Ibrahim became seriously ill and died.💔 Even though he knew that his small son would go to the Jannah, Rasūlullāh ﷺ could not help shedding some tears.💔 When some of his Companions asked him why he was weeping, he replied, “It is my humanness.”💔
As Ibrahim’s body was being buried, the sun was eclipsed and it grew dark and gloomy. Some people thought this was connected with Ibrahim’s death, but Rasūlullāh ﷺ soon clarified this. “The sun and the moon are two of Allah’s signs,” he said, “they are not eclipsed because of anyone’s birth or death. When you see these signs, make haste to remember Allah in prayer.” Although the kuffar used to mock Rasūlullāh ﷺ because he had no sons, and say that he was ‘cut off’ , Allah made it clear in the following surah that the station of Rasūlullāh ﷺ was far above that of any other man;
” *Surely We have given you AL Khawthar, so pray to your Lord and offer sacrifice. Surely he who mocks you is the one cut off*. (Quran 108:1-3)
*Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets, and Allah has knowledge of all things*. (Quran 33:40)
Mariya was honored and respected by Rasūlullāh ﷺ and his family and Companions.
She spent three years of her life with Rasūlullāh ﷺ, until his death, and died five years later in 16 AH, (رضي الله عنها) For the last five years of her life, she remained a recluse and almost never went out except to visit the grave of Rasūlullāh ﷺ or her son’s grave. After her death, Umar ibn al Khattab led the prayer over her and she was buried in al Baqi.🌹
May Allah be pleased with her, and gather us with her in the gardens of Jannah .