Cii News | 23 Muharram 1437/06 November 2015

What were the big stories in your world this week? Peruse through our weekly compilation


Local media in South Sudan reported that a plane crashed shortly after taking off from an airport, with figures saying that more than 40 people were killed

Reuters news witnesses said the tail fin of the plane and other parts were scattered along the banks of the White Nile River near the airport in the capital, Juba.

According to the report, a police officer near the scene said there were two survivors, including a child, but could not say how many people were on board or give further details.

A local media outlet said on Twitter that the aircraft was a cargo plane with five Russian crew and seven passengers.

The South Sudan Tribune also said two people survived, one of them a child.



According to reports, a car bomb targeting a policemen’s club in the city of El Arish in Egypt’s Sinai killed at least five people.

Local media reports said at least five people were also wounded in the explosion.

Sinai Province, the local affiliate of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, claimed responsibility for the attack, which it described as a suicide bombing.

The group has reportedly killed hundreds of soldiers and police since the army toppled former President Mohamed Morsi in 2013.



A Verulam attorney was found dead in a sugar cane field near King Shaka International airport.

Arvin Rhugbeer did not return home after work on Monday afternoon.

The owner of Rhugbeer and Associates Attorneys, was reported missing by his family and a search was initiated on Monday night.

Police spokesman Thulani Zwane said police found Rhugbeer’s body inside his car in a field at Canelands at about 3.30am.

He said he had a gunshot wound and he had a firearm in his hand.

Verulam police were investigating.

The Mercury


The Opposition to Urban Tolling Alliance said Transport Minister Dipuo Peters’ response to a parliamentary question on the certification of electronic e-tolling systems is an “admission that the South African National Roads Agency has transgressed the Metrology Act”.

The Freedom Front Plus’ Anton Alberts asked “whether Sanral at any stage applied for the certification or exemption from certification of the e-toll system‚ in terms of the Trade Metrology Act”.

Outa described Peters’ reply as “unacceptable”, adding that SANRAL tried to deflect attention by stating “this matter is being handled by the National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications”.

The group said it is an admission that SANRAL has transgressed the Metrology Act‚ and “continues to behave as a law unto themselves‚”

Outa added that “Sanral has flouted constitutional provisions that oblige state-owned enterprises to be transparent‚ accountable and above all‚ lawful”.

Times Live


Protests against the Western Cape education department’s systemic tests have been held at a number of schools in the province, with some parents refusing to allow their children to write the assessments.

The Western Cape education department confirmed that some schools had declined to write the annual tests, which assess maths and language skills of Grade 3, 6 and 9 pupils.

The provincial secretary of the SA Democratic Teachers Union said several parents had contacted their offices and expressed concerns that their children were being over-tested and that they couldn’t see the benefit of the tests.

The union has over the past year been calling for the tests to be scrapped, and said it cost millions of Rands which could have been spent on other priorities.

It has also argued that pupils’ skills were already being assessed through the Annual National Assessments, written by schools across the country.

The ANA have been scheduled to be written in December, but teacher unions have indicated that they will boycott the tests.

Cape Argus


The ANC Youth League said former deputy president Kgalema Motlanthe would face its full might if he continues to attack the ANC and its alliance partners in public he will face the full might of.

Provincial secretary Thanduxolo Sabelo labelled Motlanthe a “counter-revolutionary” for saying the ANC-led tripartite alliance was dead.

Motlanthe had told Business Day early this week that whoever believed the alliance was still alive was “delusional”.

The youth leagues Mkhuseli Sonzaba shared the sentiments with Cii

according to Sabelo there are weaknesses, but the tripartite alliance is not dead.”

The Mercury


A UN children agency said that hundreds of children were arriving in European countries every day, urging the UK to help the vulnerable refugees who escaped violence and death in their home country.

The UK deputy executive director of the United Nations Children Fund said “Children have been killed while studying in the classroom, recovering in hospital or sleeping in their beds.”

Lily Caprani told The Independent that many have been orphaned, forced to become soldiers, kidnapped, raped and traumatized.

According to the Independent, the latest Unicef showed that more than 190,000 children have sought asylum in Europe this year.

The figures revealed that twice as many child refugees are arriving this year compared to 2014 in which the number stood at 98,000.

The agency warned that one in 10 of the world’s children are now growing up in a conflict zone, some 230 million children.

On Islam


The University of the Western Cape agreed to scrap registration fees for all students for 2016.

This came after the management of the UWC met with its Student Representative Council and members of the UWC #FeesMustFall movement on Tuesday in a bid to resolve the current impasse at the institution.

According to documents uploaded on Twitter outlining the agreement, there would be free registration for all students in the year 2016.

The rector, Tyrone Pretorius, also agreed that the university’s executive management would also not get any further salary increments.

On the matter of outsourcing, the university said it would undertake a feasibility study to address concerns around saving and curbing unnecessary exorbitant expenditure.

It was agreed that end of year examinations would begin on November 9 and run until November 28.

A re-evaluation period would then kick in from November 30 to December 9.



Maldives President Abdulla Yameen Gayoom had declared a state of emergency, giving sweeping powers to security forces to arrest suspects ahead of a major anti-government protest rally.

According to a tweet by presidential spokesman, Muaz Ali, Maldives declared state of emergency for a period of 30 days starting 12pm Wednesday.

On Tuesday Gayoom said he would take all steps to ensure the safety of his people, a day after an explosive device was found near his official residence.

In his speech to the nation he said an explosion last month on his speedboat was “an act of greed to attain power.”

His vice president was being held for questioning over the alleged assassination attempt.

Maldives is an Indian Ocean archipelago with 350,000 people, mostly Sunni Muslims, and is known for its beaches and luxury resorts.

It has had a difficult transition to democracy since holding its first multiparty election in 2008, with the first democratically elected leader being jailed for 13 years under the country’s terrorism law.

The trial was criticised both locally and internationally for an apparent lack of due process.



Prison officials are bracing themselves in an operation aimed at intensifying vigilance to counter the high prevalence of festive season escapes.

Operation Vala was officially kicked-off at Baviaanspoort correctional services centre in Pretoria on Wednesday.

Department of Correctional Services spokesperson Manelisi Wolela said due to this high number of attempts and violence in prisons around this time‚ they need this campaign to reduce escapes and reduce the rate of smugglings into prisons.

Operation Vala was introduced in 2005 as a joint operation between the SA Police Service‚ SA National Defence Force‚ Metro police and other law enforcement agencies aimed at curbing prison escapes around the festive season.

According to Wolela‚ there was an average of 40 escapes a year.

He said this was low if one considers that the country’s prisons house 159000 inmates.



Phumlani Mfek, was interdicted from spreading hate speech and inciting violence, particularly against the Indian community in KwaZulu-Natal.

The court order interdicted the African Forum member from inciting or advocating hatred against or discrimination against members of the Indian community, or “any community in KZN”.

It also restrained Mfeka from making statements that may incite racial violence, and orders him to refrain from making such statements “orally or in writing or by means of electronic media”.

The court ordered Mfeka to remove any such remarks from electronic media, including text messages, Twitter, WhatsApp or on Facebook.

The urgent interdict was obtained by Transport, Community Safety and Liason MEC Willies Mchunu, and Human Settlements and Public Works MEC Ravi Pillay in the wake of an SMS sent to Pillay by Mfeka.

Mchunu described the anti-Indian message as “militant” and said it was brought to the attention of the premier.

Mchunu said Mfeka’s latest utterances amounted to a criminal offence and steps in that regard would be taken against him.

The matter will also be referred to the Human Rights Commission.



Eskom CEO Brian Molefe said there likely would be no load shedding until at least May 2016

While maintenance on Eskom’s ageing fleet had been increased, the power utility had managed to stave off implementing load shedding for more than 80 days.

Molefe said they are doing all that maintenance without load shedding, adding that they do not anticipate load shedding until at least the 30th of April.

He told Parliament that Eskom was celebrating 50 days of no load shedding and 87 days where only two and a half hours of load shedding took place.

While Eskom has been congratulated on alleviating load shedding, electricity usage has dropped dramatically since the start of 2015.

According to news24, this has raised concerns that Eskom has avoided implementing load shedding because of this drop in usage.



The Syrian army had reportedly regained control of a road southeast of Aleppo, taking back the government’s only supply route into the city from ISIS fighters who had seized it last month.

The countries state television said Army forces took full control of the road which runs from Aleppo through the towns of Khanaser and Ithriya and links up with the cities of Hama and Homs further south.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitoring group confirmed the report.

The road is the army’s supply route to government-held western parts of Aleppo, home to around 2 million people.

ISIS said late last month it had taken control of most of the Syrian army checkpoints on the road and seized large caches of ammunition from army outposts in the area.

Areas around Aleppo have seen weeks of heavy fighting after Syrian troops backed by Lebanese and Iranian fighters launched an offensive to retake territory around Aleppo from freedom fighters.

Al Arabia


Israels Knesset decided to set up the new ministry to focus on the boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS) campaign.

Israeli affairs analyst Anton Shalhat said that the decision proves the danger of such campaigns on the country’s economy.

According Anadolu news  reports, He explained that the increasing boycott, mainly economic, campaigns, have started to pose a threat to the economy of the Israeli settlements in the context of a slow-down in the overall economy.

Last year, the EU started to boycott goods originating on Israel’s illegal settlements;

The boycott includes academic engagement and investments.

Goods from settlements must now be labelled as such within the EU.

Exports from the settlements constitute 8 per cent of all Israeli exports, the value of which was estimated last year at $95 billion.




British and US officials said they have information suggesting the Russian jetliner that crashed in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula may have been brought down by a bomb.

British Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond said there is a “significant possibility” the crash was caused by a bomb.

He added that Britain was suspending flights to and from the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh indefinitely.

The US and British security sources however, stressed they had reached no final conclusions about the crash, as forensic evidence from the blast site, including the airplane’s black box, was still being analysed.

Information from the flight data recorder had been successfully copied and handed over to investigators, the Russians added.

ISIL, which controls swathes of Iraq and Syria and is battling the Egyptian army in the Sinai Peninsula, said again on Wednesday it brought down the airplane.

Al Jazeera


Egyptian state media reported that Flash floods have hit several areas in Egypt, leaving at least 12 people dead.

According to the semi-official newspaper Al Ahram, The Nile Delta province of Beheira was the one hard hit by the downpour with 11 deaths registered there.

Torrential rain and strong winds also lashed the Mediterranean city of Alexandria, leaving at least one person dead and forcing the closure of its ports.

The city’s authorities announced hursday would be a day off for workers and students after many streets were flooded and traffic disrupted.

More than a week ago, five people died in Alexandria due to bad weather, triggering accusations of negligence against the government.

Gulf News


Egyptian opposition groups and human rights campaigners calledfor the investigation and arrest of Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi and members of his entourage during his visit to London.

This came amid condemnation of the “red carpet” welcome extended by the British government to a leader accused of plunging his country into the worst human rights crisis in its history.

Hundreds of protesters, including many Egyptian exiles, gathered outside 10 Downing Street on Wednesday night, where Sisi was due to meet David Cameron the next day, to express their opposition to the visit.

Sisi has been condemned by international human rights watchdogs since launching a crackdown against the Muslim Brotherhood, and other opposition groups, with thousands of protesters killed and imprisoned and hundreds sentenced to death under his rule.

Al Jazeera


A North West police officer was shot and killed by armed robbers who were fleeing a robbery scene at a shopping complex in Mooinooi in the North West.

Captain Paul Ramaloko said the officers were on a routine patrol, when the group of guys had just stolen money and cellphones at an Edgars store.

The two cars met head-on and the officer, who was in the driver’s seat, got out of his car.

Just as he stepped out, one of the robbers in the getaway car shot him once in the head.

Although the group of men was still at large, Ramoloko said they had positive leads.


Choas erupted at the Kingsway campus of the University of Johannesburg after Security guards slapped, kicked and pepper sprayed students who were protesting

Innitially workers were camping outside the gates of the campus in a peaceful protest against outsourcing.

A group of between 40 and 50 students pushed against a gate that was locked prompting a security guard, who was trying to stop them ,to  slapped a woman in the face.

Students reacted angrily and the situation got even more out of control.

Security guards were seen kicking students, slapping them, beating them with sticks and pepper-spraying them.


According to a US Senate report, the US government has paid professional sports franchises millions of dollars over almost four years as part of a taxpayer-funded programme to promote the military.

The report said that the Department of Defense paid more than $9m to NFL, NBA, MLB, MLS, NHL teams and NASCAR to bolster recruitment and promote the armed services by staging patriotic displays at sporting events.

The activities included paying for recruitment ceremonies, on-field colour-guard performances, hometown heroes’ ceremonies, puck drops and first pitches.

Senator John McCain, who is one of the co-authors of the report, said Americans across the country should be deeply disappointed that many of the ceremonies honouring troops at professional sporting events, are not actually being conducted out of a sense of patriotism, but for profit in the form of millions in taxpayer dollars going from the Department of Defense to wealthy pro sports franchises
McCain says they are not against patriotic salutes, but they are against taxpayer funds being used to compensate multimillion-dollar sports teams.

Al Jazeera

According to the Saudi Interior Ministry, a Syrian woman and her lover, a fellow national, have been executed for the murder of her Saudi husband.

In a statement, the ministry said the wife and her lover, had plotted to kill her husband.

She had reportedly convinced her husband to go out on a picnic to a remote area in the northwestern part of Riyadh in February last year.

The lover turned up at the picnic spot and shot Al-Othman several times in the head and chest.

She then filed a report claiming that three masked men had shot her husband after he had resisted their attempts to rob him.

After an investigation, the woman became the chief suspect.

She eventually confessed to the crime and admitted she was having an extramarital affair with the man, and had given him a gun owned by her husband.

The ministry said the woman had previously tried to kill her husband by poisoning his food.

Arab news


Stun grenades were used to disperse minibus taxi drivers and owners who blocked Strand Street in central Cape Town on Thursday morning in protest against impoundments.

Public order police officers had warned about 50 drivers to disperse at around noon.

After refusing to leave, stun grenades sent dozens scattering, as a small number of people were loaded into a police van.

The taxi drivers were unhappy over an impoundment operation in Cape Town central and Green Point early on Tuesday morning.

The City of Cape Town’s traffic services spokesperson Richard Coleman said the operation was aimed at taxis operating without permits or off-route.

He said 10 vehicles were impounded.


Russia has dismissed any theories about what caused the Russian plane to crash in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula as “speculation” after British and US officials said a bomb may have brought down the plane.

Kremlin spokesperson, Dmitry Peskov, says that only the official investigation can determine what happened.

He said “any other proposed explanations seem like unverified information or some sort of speculation”.

Peskov also said Russian planes were continuing to fly to and from the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh, despite Ireland and Britain suspending flights.

His comments came a day after Philip Hammond, UK foreign secretary, said that there was a “significant possibility” the crash was caused by a bomb.

Al Jazeera


Survivors trapped in the rubble of a collapsed Pakistani factory were said to be calling for help on their mobile phones.

This came as rescuers feared the death toll of 18 could rise in the latest tragedy

Nearly 100 survivors were pulled from the wreckage of the factory, but rescuers say scores of workers had been crowded into the building’s basement.

On Wednesday, rescue officials said 150 people were believed to have been in the building when it collapsed.

Injured survivors said the factory’s owner, who was adding a third floor, had ignored advice from his contractor and pleas from his workers to stop construction after cracks in the walls following a powerful earthquake last week.

A government official said the owner of the factory was among the dead.

Al Jazeera


Protesting University of Johannesburg (UJ) workers were warned they face dismissal if they did not return to work.

The workers were protesting against outsourcing at the university.

News24 says they were shown an SMS which reads: “Return to work . Court order. Strike is unlawful. Stop striking, abandon strike, don’t be violent, damage property, intimidate. If you continue, Saps will arrest you.”

The protest turned violent when Fidelity security guards assaulted students and workers in front of the media and police.

Guards also pepper-sprayed protesting students.

Three workers and a student were taken to hospital by paramedics.


The head of the Islamic Movement in Palestine, Sheikh Raed Salah, revealed that a number of Arab states had asked the movement to put an end to the current intifada in return for certain proposals.

According to Al Khaleej online, Salah said these countries were bargaining with him to silence the intifada, which recently entered its second month.

He reportedly said “They proposed our full control over the Sharia schools inside Al-Aqsa Mosque in return for urgent and immediate efforts to stop the intifada.”

He added that “This proves that there are Arab countries in contact with the Israeli occupation in order to abort the intifada before in develops to more dangerous stages”.

However, he stressed that “the intifada will not stop until it achieves all the goals it was launched for and the Islamic movement will not be the tool in the hands of the Israeli occupation.”



The Palestinian ambassador to the United Nations said the Tel Aviv regime is harvesting the organs of Palestinians killed in clashes with Israeli forces in the occupied territories.

In a letter to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, Riyad Mansour said that the bodies of the Palestinians killed by Israeli forces are “returned with missing corneas and other organs.

He added that this further confirms past reports about organ harvesting by the occupying power.

According to Mansour, a medical examination conducted on bodies of Palestinians returned after they were killed by the occupying power found that they were missing organs.

The Palestinian envoy further protested Israel’s “persistent aggression against the Palestinian people” over the past month and the regime’s “insistence on use of violent force and oppressive measures.”

The Israeli regime’s imposition of restrictions in August on the entry of Palestinian worshipers to the al-Aqsa Mosque compound in East al-Quds has become the reason for the surge of recent confrontations.

According to the latest figures by the Palestinian Health Ministry, at least 74 Palestinians have lost their lives at the hands of Israeli forces since the beginning of October.

At least 11 Israelis have also been killed during that period.

Press TV


Myanmar’s opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi had remained silent after the National League for Democracy party was severely criticized for not including any Muslim candidates in its list of over 1,100 parliamentary and regional assembly hopefuls.

The absence of Muslim candidates had brought about major disappointment among the country’s Rohingya Muslims, who have faced discrimination and marginalization for centuries.

In March, Myanmar’s parliament approved a law barring people without full citizenship from voting.

The move disenfranchised hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Muslims, who are not recognized as Myanmar’s citizens.

Meanwhile, two UN special advisers have voiced alarm at the growing support for hatred against Myanmar Muslims, especially ahead of the elections.

Adama Dieng, the adviser on the prevention of genocide, and Jennifer Welsh, the adviser on the protection of civilians, said in a joint statement that the electoral process has marginalized religious minorities, particularly Rohingya Muslims, more than before.


The Ebola epidemic is expected to be declared over in Sierra Leone on Saturday, when the West African nation will have gone 42 days without any new infections.

The WHO will deliver a formal declaration in the capital on Saturday of the end of the epidemic.

DR Otim Patrick, a WHO kambia field co ordinator, however, warned of complacency.

Since emerging in December 2013, the worst outbreak of Ebola in history has infected a reported 28,500 people, with 11,300 deaths registered, 4000 in Sierra Leone.


Johannesburg Water said if dam levels continued dropping as predicted, it could impose water restrictions in January.

Rand Water was predicting that dam levels could drop to about 27 percent by January.

At a press conference, Joburg Water announced that although there were currently no water restrictions, if there was not sufficient rainfall, restrictions could be imposed.

As a precautionary measure, the utility would be announcing new by-laws next month which would permanently ban the watering of gardens between certain hours .

Although the water situation in Gauteng is currently fine, they are not down-playing the gravity of the emerging risk or threat of a water shortage.



A dam holding back waste water from an iron ore mine in the southeastern Brazilian stateof Minas Gerais had burst, leaving a nearby town devastated with mudslides

Officials in the remote region scrambled to assess casualties.

Civil defence authorities told Reuters that casualties were still not confirmed and that numbers reported in Brazilian media were speculative.

A city hall official confirmed one death and 16 injuries, adding that dozens more were missing.

Rescue crews continued to search the muddy waters after nightfall.

The dam was holding tailings, a mining waste product of metal filings, water and occasionally chemicals. It was located near the Gualaxo do Norte river, adding to fears of potential water contamination.

Al Jazeera


A confidential report by the global chemical weapons watchdog had reportedly found mustard gas again being used in Syria.

According to Al Jazeera sources the gas was used during violence between Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and a rebel group in the northern town of Marea in August.

If true, this could be the first confirmation of sulphur mustard being used in Syria since the country agreed to destroy its chemical weapons stockpile.

Reuters news agency says A confidential October 29 report by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons concluded “with the utmost confidence that at least two people were exposed to sulphur mustard” in the town of Marea, north of Aleppo, on August 21.

The findings provide the first official confirmation of use of sulphur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, in Syria since it agreed to destroy its chemical weapons stockpile.

That included sulphur mustard.

Al Jazeera


The muslim community of Buccleuch are reeping the rewards of their efforts after reaching an out of court settlement to allow the opening of a masjid in the area.

A small residents association from the town in the North of Gauteng who opposed the building of the mosque, saw the case being taken to the high court.

One of the contentious issues noted by the residents association was traffic congestion and parking for the musallees

The issue was settled after a piece of land was obtained opposite the mosque which would serve as a parking area for the congregants


A 12-year-old pupil was arrested after he allegedly stabbed to death two fellow pupils, both aged 15, from the Vulindlela Primary School in Osizweni, near Newcastle in KZN.

Major Thulani Zwane said the pupils were involved in a physical altercation and one of the pupils allegedly fetched a knife and stabbed two 15-year-old victims to death.

Provincial education spokesperson Sicelo Khuzwayo confirmed the incident.

Zwane said that in an unrelated incident, a 17-year-old pupil from Hlamvana High School in Esikhaleni was stabbed to death by a “known suspect” on Monday after they had an argument.

He said the police are confident that the suspect will be arrested soon.”

KwaZulu-Natal provincial police commissioner, Lieutenant General Mmamonnye Ngobeni, condemned the recent violence at schools in the province.

She said Pupils are once again urged not to bring dangerous weapons to schools and disrupt learning because of unrelated conflicts that may exist.



Dramatic footage of two ambulances racing one another to get to an accident scene near East London had surfaced on Facebook.

The footage showed a Dynamic EMS ambulance apparently trying to block the path of another as they both travel at speed on a freeway.

There are moments in the video clip where a collision seems imminent, with the woman filming the chase screaming in fear.

According to News 24 the footage was filmed by ambulance crews from Maponya911.

Dynamic EMS spokesperson Rudy Robson said that the incident took place on Thursday.

The private ambulance industry in South Africa is lucrative, with the providers’ profit determined by how many patients are transported to hospital.

News 24


State freight rail agency Transnet’s engineering unit has been rocked by the sudden death of its maintenance and equipment boss.

He was reported to have collapsed after an alleged “heated” meeting about faulty equipment worth millions.

Leo Dube, general manager for maintenance, plant and equipment, allegedly died yesterday in an ambulance rushing him to the internal industrial clinic at Transnet’s Koedoespoort offices in Pretoria.

A timeslive report quoted a senior manager who said Dube was an integral part of a team tasked with finding a solution to operational challenges.

Dube joined Transnet as a chief engineer for locomotives in May 2004, and in July 2006 he became general manager for maintenance, plant and equipment.

Times live


US President Barack Obama has threatened to impose trade sanctions on South Africa for blocking imports of meat from the US.

Obama said that he will suspend South Africa’s right to ship farm products to the US duty-free unless it begins to dismantle barriers to American pork, poultry, and beef within 60 days.

The US says South Africa has been blocking US chicken imports for 15 years and has used “unwarranted sanitary restrictions” to keep out US pork and beef.

South Africa missed an October 15 deadline to agree to new rules for imports of US poultry and meat products.

The country has banned US poultry imports since last December after an outbreak of bird flu.

In response, Department of Trade and Industry says it is confident that it would be able to resolve all outstanding issues and avoid the suspension on its duty-free farm trade status with the US.

Al Jazeera/Fin24


The Department of Higher Education and Training and the National Treasury will contribute almost 2 billion Rand to the R2.33 bn incurred by not increasing fees next year.

The portfolio committee on higher education and training says Universities would provide nearly R395million to make up the total..

This follows more than a week of meetings with the Presidency and National Treasury to resolve matters related to President Jacob Zuma’s announcement that tertiary fees will not increase next year.

Zuma’s announcement was prompted by a #FeesMustFall campaign which effectively shut down all universities in the country for a week.

Portfolio committee on higher education and training chairperson Yvonne Phosa said in addition to the R2.33 bn for universities, it was “unanimously agreed” that funding for the post-school education sector must be increased.

Cape Times