Name and lineage
Aisha bint ‘Abdullah (Abu Bakr al Siddiq) ibn ‘Uthman (Abu Quhafah) al Taymi al Qurshi
Sayyidah Aisha’s mother was Umm Ruman bint Uwaymir al Kananiyyah.
Her agnomen is Umm ‘Abdullah. She had asked the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to give her an agnomen as well and he instructed her to take the agnomen of Umm ‘Abdullah, who is ‘Abdullah bin Zubair ibn ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhu her nephew through her sister, Asma’ bint Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
She was born four years after Nubuwwah and the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married her when she was six years old. She came to live with the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when she was nine years old. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not marry any other virgin besides Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. Her exoneration from the false accusations against her was announced from the Heavens, and she was the most beloved of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wives to him after Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. She is also renowned for being the most knowledgeable of all the women and many of the senior Sahabah would benefit from her knowledge.
She was eighteen years old when the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away and she passed away on 17 Ramadan 58 A.H. Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu performed her Janazah Salah and she was buried in al Baqi’, May Allah be pleased with her.
Virtues and Status
- She was the most beloved to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of all his wives after Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.
Al Bukhari radiya Llahu ‘anha reports with his chain of narration from ‘Amr ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam deputed me to lead the army of Dhat al Salasil. I came to him and said, “Who is the most beloved person to you?”
He said, “Aisha.”
I asked, “Among the men?”
He said, “Her father.”
- Sayyidina Jibril ‘alayh al Salam came to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with her picture on a silken cloth before they were married.
Al Bukhari and Muslim both report with their chains of narration from Sayyidina Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhathat the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to her:
I saw you in a dream for three nights when an angel brought you to me in a silk cloth and he said, “Here is your wife,” and when I removed (the cloth) from your face, lo, it was yourself, so I said, “If this is from Allah, let Him carry it out.”
- Sayyidina Jibril ‘alayh al Salam conveyed greetings to her through the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
Al Bukhari reports from Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to me one day, “O ‘A’ish, this is Jibril conveying his greetings upon you.” So I replied, “May Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon him as well, (O Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) you see what I do not see.”
- Wahi (revelation) descended upon the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while he lay beside Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha and the same did not occur with the other Ummahat al Mu’minin.
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha:
O Umm Salamah! Do not cause me pain with regard to Aisha for verily I take an oath by Allah revelation did not descend upon me while I lay besides any of you except Aisha.
- When the verse of Takhyir was revealed, which is:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ إِن كُنتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا وَزِيْنَتَهَا فَتَعَالَيْنَ أُمَتِّعْكُنَّ وَأُسَرِّحْكُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيْلًا وَإِنْ كُنتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُوْلَهُ وَالدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْمُحْسِنَاتِ مِنكُنَّ أَجْرًا عَظِيْمًا
O Prophet, say to your wives, “If you should desire the worldly life and its adornment, then come, I will provide for you and give you a gracious release. But if you should desire Allah and His Messenger and the home of the Hereafter—then indeed, Allah has prepared for the doers of good among you a great reward.”
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam first asked Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha and advised her to discuss the matter with her parents first before making her decision but she chose the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam without even consulting her parents, which was then followed by the other Ummahat al Mu’minin.
Al Bukhari and Muslim report that Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha said when advised to consult with her parents:
“What need is there to consult my parents in this regard? Verily, I seek Allah, His Apostle and the Home of the Hereafter.” Then all the other wives of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did the same as I did.
- Verses of the Qur’an were revealed on account of her, either elevating her status or for the benefit of the Ummah at large. A few of these verses are:
- Allah revealed her innocence when she was falsely accused and slandered.
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ جَاءُوا بِالْإِفْكِ عُصْبَةٌ مِّنكُمْ ۚ لَا تَحْسَبُوهُ شَرًّا لَّكُم ۖ بَلْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۚ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِّنْهُم مَّا اكْتَسَبَ مِنَ الْإِثْمِ ۚ وَالَّذِي تَوَلَّىٰ كِبْرَهُ مِنْهُمْ لَهُ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ (11)
Indeed, those who came with falsehood are a group among you. Do not think it bad for you; rather it is good for you. For every person among them is what [punishment] he has earned from the sin, and he who took upon himself the greater portion thereof – for him is a great punishment.
لَّوْلَا إِذْ سَمِعْتُمُوهُ ظَنَّ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بِأَنفُسِهِمْ خَيْرًا وَقَالُوا هَٰذَا إِفْكٌ مُّبِينٌ (12)
Why, when you heard it, did not the believing men and believing women think good of one another and say, “This is an obvious falsehood”?
لَّوْلَا جَاءُوا عَلَيْهِ بِأَرْبَعَةِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَإِذْ لَمْ يَأْتُوا بِالشُّهَدَاءِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ عِندَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْكَاذِبُونَ (13)
Why did they [who slandered] not produce for it four witnesses? And when they do not produce the witnesses, then it is they, in the sight of Allah , who are the liars.
وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ لَمَسَّكُمْ فِي مَا أَفَضْتُمْ فِيهِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ (14)
And if it had not been for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy in this world and the Hereafter, you would have been touched for that [lie] in which you were involved by a great punishment
إِذْ تَلَقَّوْنَهُ بِأَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَتَقُولُونَ بِأَفْوَاهِكُم مَّا لَيْسَ لَكُم بِهِ عِلْمٌ وَتَحْسَبُونَهُ هَيِّنًا وَهُوَ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَظِيمٌ (15)
When you received it with your tongues and said with your mouths that of which you had no knowledge and thought it was insignificant while it was, in the sight of Allah , tremendous.
وَلَوْلَا إِذْ سَمِعْتُمُوهُ قُلْتُم مَّا يَكُونُ لَنَا أَن نَّتَكَلَّمَ بِهَٰذَا سُبْحَانَكَ هَٰذَا بُهْتَانٌ عَظِيمٌ (16)
And why, when you heard it, did you not say, “It is not for us to speak of this. Exalted are You, [O Allah ]; this is a great slander”?
يَعِظُكُمُ اللَّهُ أَن تَعُودُوا لِمِثْلِهِ أَبَدًا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ (17)
Allah warns you against returning to the likes of this [conduct], ever, if you should be believers.
وَيُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ (18)
And Allah makes clear to you the verses, and Allah is Knowing and Wise.
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُحِبُّونَ أَن تَشِيعَ الْفَاحِشَةُ فِي الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ (19)
Indeed, those who like that immorality should be spread [or publicized] among those who have believed will have a painful punishment in this world and the Hereafter. And Allah knows and you do not know.
وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ (20)
And if it had not been for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy… and because Allah is Kind and Merciful.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَّبِعْ خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَإِنَّهُ يَأْمُرُ بِالْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ ۚ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ مَا زَكَىٰ مِنكُم مِّنْ أَحَدٍ أَبَدًا وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُزَكِّي مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ (21)
O you who have believed, do not follow the footsteps of Satan. And whoever follows the footsteps of Satan – indeed, he enjoins immorality and wrongdoing. And if not for the favour of Allah upon you and His mercy, not one of you would have been pure, ever, but Allah purifies whom He wills, and Allah is Hearing and Knowing.
وَلَا يَأْتَلِ أُولُو الْفَضْلِ مِنكُمْ وَالسَّعَةِ أَن يُؤْتُوا أُولِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَالْمُهَاجِرِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَلْيَعْفُوا وَلْيَصْفَحُوا ۗ أَلَا تُحِبُّونَ أَن يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (22)
And let not those of virtue among you and wealth swear not to give [aid] to their relatives and the needy and the emigrants for the cause of Allah , and let them pardon and overlook. Would you not like that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْغَافِلَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ لُعِنُوا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ (23)
Indeed, those who [falsely] accuse chaste, unaware and believing women are cursed in this world and the Hereafter; and they will have a great punishment
يَوْمَ تَشْهَدُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَلْسِنَتُهُمْ وَأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (24)
On a Day when their tongues, their hands and their feet will bear witness against them as to what they used to do.
يَوْمَئِذٍ يُوَفِّيهِمُ اللَّهُ دِينَهُمُ الْحَقَّ وَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ الْمُبِينُ (25)
That Day, Allah will pay them in full their deserved recompense, and they will know that it is Allah who is the perfect in justice.
الْخَبِيثَاتُ لِلْخَبِيثِينَ وَالْخَبِيثُونَ لِلْخَبِيثَاتِ ۖ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلطَّيِّبِينَ وَالطَّيِّبُونَ لِلطَّيِّبَاتِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ مُبَرَّءُونَ مِمَّا يَقُولُونَ ۖ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ
Evil words are for evil men, and evil men are [subjected] to evil words. And good words are for good men, and good men are [an object] of good words. Those [good people] are declared innocent of what the slanderers say. For them is forgiveness and noble provision.
- As for the verses which benefited the entire Ummah:
The verses of Tayammum.
وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا
And if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and find no water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and your hands [with it]. Indeed, Allah is ever Pardoning and Forgiving.
Al Bukhari and Muslim report from Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha that she had borrowed from Asma’ (her sister) a necklace and it got lost. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent men to search for it. As it was the time for prayer, they offered prayer without ablution (as water was not available there). When they came to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, they made a complaint about it, and the verses pertaining to Tayammum were revealed. Upon this Usayd ibn Hudayr said (to Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha), “May Allah grant you a good reward! Never has there been an occasion when you were beset with difficulty and Allah did not make you come out of that and made it an occasion of blessing for the Muslims.”
- The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam desired to spend the last days during his illness in her house and he passed away in her home, while in her lap, on her day. Allah caused her saliva to be mixed with that of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during his final moment in this world and his first in the Hereafter. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was then buried in her house. Al Bukhari reports from Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:
‘Abd al Rahman ibn Abi Bakr entered upon the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while I was supporting the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on my chest. ‘Abd al Rahman had a fresh miswak then and he was cleaning his teeth with it. Allah’s Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallamlooked at it, so I took the miswak, cut it (chewed it with my teeth), shook it and made it soft (with water), and then gave it to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who cleaned his teeth with it…
- The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave her the glad tidings that she is amongst the People of Jannat.
Al Bukhari reported from Qasim ibn Muhammad:
Once Aisha became sick and Ibn ‘Abbas went to see her and said, “O mother of the believers! You are leaving to meet the truthful forerunners (i.e. Allah’s Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr).”
The glad tidings from Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu could only have come from the guarantee of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. As has been reported by al Tirmidhi—which he ruled to be Sahih—from ‘Abdullah ibn Ziyad al Asadi, who said:
I heard ‘Ammar ibn Yasir saying, “She (Aisha) is his wife in this world and the Hereafter.”
- She is the most knowledgeable of the women of this Ummah. She has narrated a prolific number of ahadith from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exceeding 2000 in addition to the fact that many of the senior Companions would refer to her and seek her ruling on matters.