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Journey Through Surah al-Hujurat

Sūrat al-Hujurāt | Verse by Verse

Part 1

This Medinan Sūrah takes its title from the reference to the Prophet’s private rooms in verse 4. It deals with social aspects of Muslim society, informing the believers how to interact with the Prophet with due propriety, and with each other with mutual respect and trust. The concluding passages point out the differences between true faith and a mere outward observance of religious practice. The chapter begins by stating that Allāh knows all and hears all, and ends by stating that Allāh knows the unseen and sees all, this being a theme of the whole chapter and hence the repeated counsel to be mindful of Him.

The Sūrah consists of 18 verses and 343 words. It has no verses that are abrogated. It was revealed after al-Mujādilah and before al-Taḥrīm, making it the 108th Sūrah revealed to the Prophet (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam), and was revealed in the 9th year after the Hijra.

The Sūrah addresses the important topic of akhlāq and tarbiya.

In the name of Allāh, the All-Merciful, the Most Merciful

1You who have faith! Do not put yourselves forward before Allāh and His Messenger; be mindful of Allāh: Allāh is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. 

2You who have faith! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet and do not speak loudly to him as you do to one another lest your actions come to nothing without your realising it. 

3Those who subdue their voices when they are with the Messenger of Allāh are people whose hearts Allāh has tested for mindfulness (of Him). They will have forgiveness and an immense reward. 

4As for those who call out to you from outside your private quarters, most of them lack understanding. 

5If they had only been patient until you came out to them, it would have been better for them, but Allāh is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

The general theme of this Sūrah revolves around social aspects of Muslim society. A functioning society must have a set of rules and regulations to govern it, a head of state to implement them, and a moral compass to direct it without which it would degenerate and fall into chaos and depravity. It is the interactions of the members of a community that really determine its success: empathy, responsible behaviour, and a collective vision. We catch a glimpse into what an ideal society would look like: a community based on revelation from Allāh, focused on Allāh; a community displaying fine conduct towards Allāh and His Messenger, and all others; a community where the individual cares for his own soul’s well-being and the well-being of others. This is what is addressed here, and the Sūrah begins by addressing the rights due to the head of state, in this case Allāh’s Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam), in his capacity as head of state and, more specifically, his capacity as Messenger of Allāh.[1]

These rights are underscored by the fact that the first three ayāt of this Sūrah were revealed in response to a particular incident that happened during the Prophet’s (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) lifetime. One time, Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, were sitting with the Prophet (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) while he was receiving a delegation of Banū Tamīm. Abū Bakr recommended that one of their number, al-Qaʿqaʿ b. Maʿbad, be made their leader. ʿUmar, however, disagreed and said that another of their number, al-Aqraʿ b. Ḥābis should be made their leader. Abū Bakr said to ʿUmar, ‘You just wanted to contradict me!’ ʿUmar said, ‘I had no intention of contradicting you!’ They started arguing and voices were raised in front of the Prophet (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam). Then, Allāh revealed these āyāt. After this revelation, when he spoke to the Messenger of Allāh (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam), ʿUmar’s voice was so low that he (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) had to ask him to repeat what he said so that he could catch what he was saying.[2]

Similarly, when this verse was revealed, Abū Hurayrah mentioned that Abū Bakr exclaimed, ‘By Allāh! I will not raise my voice, keeping it as if I was whispering a secret to someone.’[3] Abū Bakr is also reported to have said, ‘By the One who sent you with truth, I will only speak to you as if I was whispering a secret to someone.’[4] Some narrations mention that it was about Abū Bakr that the third āyah was revealed.[5]

We need to consider what these two illustrious figures did here. They did not oppose Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam); their mistake was simply putting forward a suggestion before Allāh’s Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) had spoken and then arguing their case in his presence. Up to this point there had been no prohibition revealed concerning this, yet Allāh used them as an example to teach the rest of the ummah how to interact with the Prophet (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam).[6] The following is a noteworthy point to consider: their response to this revelation was not arrogant rejection, it was not to present excuses; rather it was immediate rectification and implementation of the counsel received from Allāh.

“You who have faith,” in Allāh as your Lord, Muḥammad (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) as your Messenger, and Islām as your religion,[7] “Do not put yourselves forward before Allāh and His Messenger,” do not rush to pass judgement on a matter before Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) have done so, risking the possibility of opposing them,[8] rather submit to and follow them in all affairs.[9] Do not behave presumptuously with them and do not allow your own desires to take precedence over their guidance. “Be mindful of Allāh”, lest you say something not sanctioned by Allāh and His Messenger, or that you do something which displeases Him. Be aware of Him always in all that you do, “Allāh is All-Hearing,” of all that you say[10] “All-Knowing,” of the intent behind your words and actions. Nothing whatsoever is hidden from Him, you can conceal nothing from Him no matter how deep you bury it in your hearts.[11]

“You who have faith,”

Calling Muslims in this way is a way of honouring them and reminding them of the great blessing of faith that Allāh has bestowed on them, deserving of gratitude. This fact is further highlighted in the penultimate āyah of this Sūrah,

They think they have done you a favour by becoming Muslims! Say, ‘Do not consider your Islam a favour to me; rather it is Allāh who has favoured you by guiding you to faith if you are telling the truth.’”

It is also for this reason that Allāh praised the bearers of the Throne by stating that they have faith in Him,[12]

الَّذِينَ يَحْمِلُونَ الْعَرْشَ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَيُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ

“Those who carry the Throne and those who surround it celebrate the praise of their Lord and have faith in Him.”[13]

Allāh’s Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) said, “Allah, Most High, gives the world to those He loves and to those He does not love, but He only gives religion to those He loves. Whoever is given the religion, then Allah has loved him”[14]

By addressing the believers in this way, Allah shows us the ideal way of addressing people such that they would be more receptive to the advice or counsel being offered: rather than being confrontational or aggressive, we approach them using terms of endearment and respect, in a composed and prudent manner.[15]

“You who have faith,” the Muslim is required to display fine conduct with Allāh, His Messenger and the Muslim community as a whole. The Muslims are either righteous or sinful, present or absent. This then makes five categories: 1) Allāh 2) His Messenger 3) The Righteous who are present 4) The Righteous who are absent 5) The Sinful.

This Sūrah has the call “You who have faith!” repeated five times, after each time a command or prohibition is given dealing with one of the five categories above.[16] These commandments as a whole seek to establish a strong, close knit community tied together by the bonds of faith and brotherhood.

“You who have faith,” Ibn Masʿūd said, ‘When you hear Allāh saying, “You who have faith,” then pay attention because what follows is either an order to do something good or a proscription from doing something bad.’[17] Zuhrī said, ‘When Allāh says, “You who have faith,” then do what is commanded.’[18] The statement implies that what follows is from the dictates of īmān, and to oppose it is to oppose what is required of faith.[19]

“Do not put yourselves forward,” taqaddum is literally to walk in front of someone else or to go before him. The image being depicted here is that of a person doing or saying something without permission from Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) and being compared to someone who has left them behind him and moved on.[20] As such, the prohibition is against giving anything priority or precedence to Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam).

“before,” Arabic: bayna yaday: a literal translation of this is “between his hands”. The phrase refers to what is before a person since what is between the hands of a person is actually what is in front of him,[21] or it means in his presence.[22]

“You who have faith! Do not put yourselves forward before Allāh and His Messenger,” ‘in both word and deed,’ as stated by Sufyān al-Thawrī.[23] Allāh “speaks the truth and guides to the Straight Path,” and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) “does not speak of his own desires.”[24] This āyah clearly prohibits the Muslim from opposing the guidance of Allāh and His Messenger, it proscribes him from walking a path other than that laid out by them, and it bans him from voicing a personal opinion after Allāh and His Messenger have spoken. Indeed, it commands him to wait for judgement from Allāh and His Messenger rather than rushing to his own conclusion, hence Ibn Zayd commented, ‘Do not decide in favour of an opinion before Allāh and His Messenger have decided it.’[25] al-Kalbī said, ‘Do not precede Allāh’s Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) in word or deed until he has enjoined you to it.’[26] Ibn ʿAbbās said, ‘They were prohibited from speaking ahead of his (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) words.’[27]

The true believer is completely committed to his faith, has deep conviction of its truth, and knows with certainty that everything that Allāh and His Messenger command is perfect for us, beneficial, and, indeed, beautiful in all respects.

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

Today I have perfected your religion for you, completed my blessing upon you, and chosen Islām as your religion.[28]

Allāh’s Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) said, “Allāh is beautiful and loves beauty,”[29] and He (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) said, “Allāh is good and pure, and accepts only what is good and pure.”[30]

As such, the believer will not behave presumptuously with Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) and will not allow his own desires or personal preference to take precedence over their guidance. It is for this reason that Qatādah said when explaining this āyah, ‘People would say, “If only this (answer) was revealed concerning this issue. If only this or that happened,” so Allāh revealed this āyah.’[31]

When the Prophet (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) sent Muʿādh to Yemen he asked him, “What will you use to judge them?” He replied, ‘Allāh’s Book.’ He said, “What if you don’t find the answer you seek in it?” He replied, ‘The Sunnah of Allāh’s Messenger.’ He said, ‘What if you don’t find the answer you seek in it?’ He said, ‘I will strive to pass my own judgement.’ Allāh’s Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) then said, “Praise be to Allāh who has granted the messenger of Allāh’s Messenger a course pleasing to Allāh’s Messenger.”[32] The point being that Muʿādh relegated his own judgement to third place.[33]

Acts of worship that have allotted times and are subject to conditions are to be performed in accordance to those restrictions, for example ṣalāhṣiyām and Ḥajj,[34] to do otherwise would be to put oneself before Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam). Ibn Jurayj explained the āyah with his words, ‘Do not perform acts of obedience before the times allotted them by Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam),’[35] and al-Ḥasan furnished the following example, ‘On the Day of ʿĪd, some people slaughtered before the prayer and Allāh’s Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) ordered them to do the sacrifice again.’[36]

Moreover, included in this is to give precedence to man-made law over the law of Allāh. To legislate in areas that Allāh has not granted permission, to make lawful what Allāh has prohibited, and to make prohibited what Allāh has made lawful.[37]

ʿAdī b. Ḥātim reports that he heard the Messenger of Allāh (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) reciting,

اتَّخَذُوا أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا إِلَـٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ لَّا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

They have taken their rabbis and monks as lords besides Allāh, and also the Messiah, son of Maryam. Yet they were commanded to worship only one God. There is none worthy of worship save Him! Glory be to Him above anything they associate with Him![38]

and said, ‘But we never worshipped them?’ He said, “Did they not make unlawful what Allāh made lawful, and so you did too? Did they not make lawful what Allāh made unlawful, and so you did too?” He replied, ‘Yes.’ He said, “That was their worship.”[39]

Similarly, passing a verdict, ruling something to be obligatory or recommended or prohibited without any evidence is an example of putting oneself before Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam).[40]

Absolute precedence is given to Allāh’s Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam). Qatādah said, ‘Do not undermine Allāh’s Messenger in anything. Let Allāh pass judgement on his tongue.’[41] Indeed, to not do so is to imply that someone else is more knowledgeable and wiser than Allāh and His Messenger, a mistake of epic proportion.[42]

Not only does this apply during the Prophet’s lifetime (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam), but it also applies after his passing away. It is for this reason that Ibn ʿAbbās made his observation on this āyah, ‘Do not say anything that opposes the Book and Sunnah.’[43]

All of the opinions voiced above by the Salaf are correct and fall within the general import of the āyah.[44]

The āyah establishes a foundational principle for us as Muslims and that is to obey Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) without resistance, or opposition, or raising specious arguments against.[45]

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

By your Lord, they will not be true believers until they let you decide between them in all matters of dispute, and find no resistance in their souls to your decisions, accepting them totally.[46]

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّـهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا

You who believe, obey Allāh and the Messenger, and those in authority among you. If you are in dispute over any matter, refer it to Allāh and the Messenger, if you truly believe in Allāh and the Last Day, that is better and fairer in the end.[47]

قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّـهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّـهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Say, ‘If you love Allāh, follow me, and Allāh will love you and forgive you your sins.’ Allāh is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.[48]

ʿĀʾishah reported that the Prophet (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) said, “Order Abū Bakr to lead the people in prayer.” She replied, ‘Abū Bakr is a soft-hearted person and when he stands at your place, he will weep (so much that he will not be able to lead the prayer).’ The Prophet (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) repeated the same order and she gave the same reply; and again. Then the Prophet (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) said on the third or fourth time, “You are (like) the female companions of Yūsuf! Order Abū Bakr to lead the prayer.”[49]

The āyah also establishes that the source of knowledge when it comes to religion is one: Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam). This principle saves a person and society from the confusion and the chaos of taking multiple sources as sources of law, where changes in society and values further confound the situation,[50]

ضَرَبَ اللَّـهُ مَثَلًا رَّجُلًا فِيهِ شُرَكَاءُ مُتَشَاكِسُونَ وَرَجُلًا سَلَمًا لِّرَجُلٍ هَلْ يَسْتَوِيَانِ مَثَلًا ۚ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Allāh puts forward this illustration: can a man who has for his masters several partners at odds with each other be equal to a man devoted wholly to one master? All praise belongs to Allāh, though most of them do not know.[51]

Part and parcel of not putting oneself forward before Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) is not to innovate in the religion: introducing something new in the religion that has not been legislated by Allāh,[52]

أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ شَرَعُوا لَهُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَن بِهِ اللَّـهُ

Do they have partners who ordain things for them which Allāh has not sanctioned in the practise of their religion.[53]

The religion of Allāh is complete and perfect,

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour to you, and have chosen Islām as your religion.[54]

Allāh’s Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) said, “I advise you to fear Allāh and to hear and obey even if an Abyssinian slave were to rule over you. For surely, he who lives from amongst you will see much differing, so it is upon you to be upon my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. Bite on to it with your molar teeth and beware of newly invented matters, for verily, every newly invented matter is an innovation, and all innovation is misguidance.”[55]

“Be mindful of Allāh,” place a shield in front of you that will serve to protect you from His anger.[56] This is brought about by having faith in Him, doing what He commands and avoiding what He prohibits.[57]

Samaʿānī said, ‘Taqwā the basic meaning of which is setting a barrier between two things. This is why it is said that one ittaqā with his shield, i.e. he set it as a barrier between him and the one who wished him evil […] Therefore it is as if the one who has taqwā has used his following the commands of Allāh and avoiding His prohibitions as a barrier between himself and the punishment. Hence he has preserved and fortified himself against the punishment of Allāh through his obeying Him.’[58]

Ibn ʿAbbās said, ‘The one who has taqwā is one who secures himself from shirk, major sins and all indecent actions.’ ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb asked Kaʿb al-Aḥbār, ‘Tell me what taqwā is,’ to which he replied, ‘Have you ever traversed a path beset with thorns?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ Kaʿb asked, ‘So what did you do?’ He replied, ‘I gathered together my garments and trod cautiously.’ He said, ‘That is taqwā.’ Shahr b. Ḥawshab said, ‘The muttaqī is one who leaves that which contains no harm for fear of committing that which is harmful.’ ʿUmar b. ʿAbdu’l-ʿAzīz said, ‘Taqwā is abandoning all that Allāh has prohibited and performing all that He has ordered. Then that provision that Allāh gives you after this is goodness on top of goodness.’[59]

This command complements and completes the previous prohibition and shows us that obedience to Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) is part of taqwā, and that to put oneself forward before them violates taqwā.[60] The statement also alludes to the fact that implementing this one command contained in the āyah is not the be all and end all of obedience, one must not think that he has completed his duty to Allāh and His Messenger in this one matter, rather a person must have taqwā in all aspects of his life and it must accompany him in everything.[61] This statement, then, encompasses the whole of the Sharīʿah.[62]

“Allāh is All-Hearing, All-Knowing,” this sentence serves to furnish us with the reason behind the command to be mindful of Him, in turn following the prohibition of putting oneself forward before Allāh and His Messenger, and that is Allāh hears all and knows all, nothing whatsoever goes unheard by Him and nothing whatsoever is unknown to Him.[63] The believer who knows this will then ensure that his outward conforms to his inward, that what he says is in agreement to what he believes, and what he does accords to what he says.[64]

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّـهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُ ۚ

Remember that Allāh knows what is in your souls, so be mindful of Him.[65]

Some have used this āyah as a proof against juristic analogy (qiyās), however this is incorrect as the usage of qiyās is proven by many texts and, as such, would not be a case of putting oneself in front of Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam).[66]

Points of Benefit

  1. Address people with gentleness and terms of endearment so as to encourage them to accept sincere advice
  2. The Muslim does not rush to a verdict without first ascertaining what, if anything, Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) have to say on the subject
  3. The Muslim does not knowingly oppose Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam)
  4. It is not permissible for a Muslim to put forward his own personal opinion when a text exists on the issue in the Book or Sunnah
  5. If a Muslim does hold to an opinion, and then discovers a text that goes against it, he must withdraw his opinion and follow the text.
  6. The Muslim does not put the opinion or act of any other before that of Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam).
  7. The Muslim does not view his intellect, or the intellect of any other, as being superior to revelation.
  8. The Muslim does not behave presumptuously with Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam). He does not allow his own desires or personal preferences to take precedence over their guidance
  9. Man-made law is not given precedence over what Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam) have legislated.
  10. The source of Islām is one, not many: what comes from Allāh and His Messenger (sall Allāhu ʿalayhī wa sallam)
  11. The prohibition of innovation in religion
  12. Not putting oneself forward before Allāh and His Messengers covers word and deed
  13. The Muslim must always be mindful of Allāh
  14. Part and parcel of taqwā is to obey Allāh and His Messenger
  15. The Muslim has taqwā in everything he does
  16. Allāh hears all and knows all, nothing is hidden from Him or unknown to Him
  17. The Muslim is bashful and modest, knowing that he is being watched by Allāh
  18. The Muslim is careful of what he says, and what he believes and thinks knowing that nothing is hidden from Allāh
  19. The Muslim is not hypocritical in word or deed
  20. Juristic analogy (qiyās) is valid

Source: www.islam21c.com


[1] Sulaym, Tafsīr al-Mawḍūʿī

[2] Bukhārī #4367-4845-4847-7302. Wāḥidī, Asbāb al-Nuzūl quotes that it was this occasion that led to the revelation of verses 1 through 5 of this sūrah.

[3] Ḥākim 2:462, Bayhaqī, Shuʿab #1521

[4] Bazzār #56, Ḥākim 3:74

[5] Wāḥidī, Asbāb al-Nuzūl

[6] Sulaym

[7] Jazāʾirī, Shaʿrāwī

[8] Ṭabari

[9] Ibn Kathīr

[10] Ṭabarī, Qurṭubī

[11] Ṭabarī

[12] Sulaym, ʿAdawī

[13] Al-Qur’ān 40:7

[14] Aḥmad

[15] ʿAdawī

[16] Rāzī, Baqāʾī, ibn ʿĀshūr

[17] Ibn Abī Ḥātim, ibn al-Mubārak, al-Zuhd #36, ibn Kathīr to 5:1

[18] Ibn Abī Ḥātim, ibn Kathīr to 5:1

[19] Ibn ʿUthaymīn

[20] Ibn ʿĀshūr

[21] Wāḥidī, al-Basīṭ

[22] Rāzī, Shawkānī

[23] Ibn Kathīr

[24] Baqāʾī

[25] Ṭabarī

[26] Thaʿlabī, Wāḥidī

[27] Ṭabarī, Suyūṭī, al-Durr al-Manthūr referenced it to Ibn Abī Ḥātim and ibn Mardawayh

[28] Al-Qur’ān 5:3

[29] Muslim #131

[30] Muslim #1686

[31] Ṭabarī

[32] Abū Dāwūd, Tirmidhī, ibn Mājah

[33] Ibn Kathīr

[34] Ibn al-ʿArabī

[35] Ibn al-ʿArabī, Māwardī, Qurṭubī, Zajjāj

[36] Ṭabarī, ʿAbdu’l-Razzāq, ibn Abī Ḥātim

[37] Shanqīṭī

[38] Al-Qur’ān 9:31

[39] Tirmidhī #3095, Ṭabarānī, al-Kabīr 17:92, Ṭabarī to 9:31

Tirmidhī said it was ḥasan gharīb, ibn Taymiyyah, al-Īmān, pg. 64 said it was ḥasan as did Albānī, Taḥqīq al-Tirmidhī.

[40] Ibn ʿUthaymīn

[41] Bukhārī #4845, Ṭabarī, ʿAbd b. Ḥumayd, Bayhaqi, Shuʿab al-Īmān #1516

[42] Jazāʾirī

[43] Ibn Abī Ḥātim, Ṭabarī, Abū Nuʿaym 10:398

[44] Ibn al-ʿArabī, Qurṭubī

[45] Qurṭubī, ibn ʿĀshūr

[46] Al-Qur’ān 4:65

[47] Al-Qur’ān 4:59

[48] Al-Qur’ān 3:31

[49] Bukhārī #713, Muslim #418

[50] Sulaym

[51] Al-Qur’ān 39:29

[52] Sulaym, ibn ʿUthaymīn

[53] Al-Qur’ān 42:21

[54] Al-Qur’ān 5:3

[55] Abū Dāwūd #4607, Tirmidhī #2676

[56] Baqāʾī, Ibn ʿUthaymīn

[57] Ibn ʿUthaymīn

[58] Samaʿānī, Tafsīr 1:42

[59] Baghawī, Tafsīr 1:60

[60] Ibn ʿĀshūr,

[61] Rāzī

[62] Ibn ʿUthaymīn

[63] Ibn ʿĀshūr

[64] Rāzī

[65] Al-Qur’ān 2:235

[66] Qurṭubī

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