Mawiyah fought a battle with the IV Caliph where thousands of Muslims were killed and he appointed Yazeed as successor who than killed Hazrat Husain (RA) in Karbala. Can you explain this?
(Question posted as received)
Wa Alaykumus Salaam Wa Rahmatullaahi Wa Barakaatuhu
You enquire about the battles fought amongst Sahaabah and Sayyiduna Muaawiyah Radhiyallahu Anhu’s appointment of his son and ask for an explanation.
There is no need for us to explain and neither is there a need to be informed. The Sahaabah’s rank is such that Allah Ta’ala expressed His Divine and Eternal Pleasure on them with full knowledge of every event that would transpire in their lives. Allah Ta’ala’s regard for Sahaabah is of that level that He has made the attainment of His Pleasure subject to following their righteous lives and he has made it the continuous duty for the Ummah until the Day of Qiyaamah to make Dua for them.
وَالسَّابِقُوْنَ الْأَوَّلُوْنَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِيْنَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ وَالَّذِيْنَ اتَّبَعُوْهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللّٰهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوْا عَنْهوَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِيْ تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِيْنَ فِيْهَا أَبَدًاۚ ذٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيْمُ
And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajirin and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct – Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.
وَالَّذِيْنَ جَاءُوْا مِنْۢ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُوْلُوْنَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِيْنَ سَبَقُوْنَا بِالْإِيْمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِيْ قُلُوْبِنَا غِلًّا لِّلَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَءُوْفٌ رَّحِيْمٌ
And those who came after them, saying, “Our Rabb, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts [any] resentment toward those who have believed. Our Rabb, indeed You are Kind and Merciful.”
Who then are we that we may demand an explanation for their deeds?
The scholars of Ahl al-Sunnah have consensus on the fact that one should not delve into that which occurred between the Sahabah, and rather avoid it.
Al-Khattabi narrates in al-`Uzlah, as well as Abu Nu`aym in al-Hilyah, it was said to `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz: “What do you say regarding the people of Siffin?” He replied, “That is blood which Allah has kept my hands pure from; I do not wish to dye my tongue with that.”
A similar statement is recorded by Ibn Sa`d in al-Tabaqat and Ibn `Asakir, `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz was asked regarding `Ali, `Uthman, al-Jamal and Siffin and his response was, “That is blood which Allah avoided my hand from, I do not wish to soil my tongue with it.”
Al-Khallal narrates in al-Sunnah and Ibn al-Jowzi in al-Manaqib, “It was said to Ahmad ibn Hanbal, “what do you say about what happened between `Ali and Mu`awiyah?” He responded, “I only speak of them that which is the best; may Allah have mercy on them all.”
In Tabaqat al-Hanabilah, Imam Ahmad is quoted saying, “Ninety men from the generation of the Tabi`in and the scholars of the Muslims and the jurists of the Muslim territories are unanimous in their view of abstaining from whatever transpired between the Sahabah of the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam, as well as the view that the best of people of the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam are Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman, `Ali — the cousin of the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam, as well as seeking mercy for all the Sahabah as well as the wives of the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam and his extended family. May the Pleasure of Allah be upon all of them. This is the Sunnah so hold on to it. Holding fast to it is guidance and abandoning it is misguidance.”
Al-Khatib narrates in his Tarikh that a person asked Imam Ahmad about what happened between `Ali and Mu`awiyah so he turned away from the man. It was said, “O Abu `Abd Allah this is a man from Banu Hashim, so he turned to the man and said:
تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُمْ مَّا كَسَبْتُمْۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُوْنَ عَمَّا كَانُوْا يَعْمَلُوْنَ
That was a nation which has passed on. It will have [the consequence of] what it earned, and you will have what you have earned. And you will not be asked about what they used to do.
It is the due right of every Muslim that he should be presumed innocent until proven guilty, and that we hold good thoughts of him and his actions until proven otherwise. For if one holds a good thought and that good thought happens to be false, then there is no sin in doing so. But if one holds an ill thought of his fellow Muslim and that evil thought happens to be false, then one is liable in Allah’s court.
If that is the case of an ordinary Muslim, then what is the due right of Sahaabah Radhiyallahu Anhum, and what is the due right of Sayyiduna Muawiyah Radhiyallahu Anhu? Are we not aware that Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam was married to his sister and he was therefore the brother-in-law of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam?
Or that Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam made dua for him and spoke highly of him? Consider that deeply. Can it be that an ummati of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam may have the audacity to question the motives of the person whom Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam spoke highly of? Can one who loves Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam dare to feel anything in his heart against a person whom the Rasool of Allah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam loved? This is not a trivial issue.
It is our duty that we hold Sahaabah in the highest regard, make dua for them and still our tongues from questioning them. If we choose not to abide by this, then we do so at our own peril.
And Allah Ta’ala knows best
Mufti Moosa Salie
Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) – Fatwa Department
Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)
Council of Muslim Theologians
Tel : +27 (0) 31 2077099
Fax : +27(0) 31 2074163
Website : www.jamiat.org.za
Disclaimer: The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. The Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) bears no responsibility to any party who may or may not act on this answer. The Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) being hereby exempted from loss or damage howsoever caused. Should the question refer to a matter in dispute between two parties, this answer may not be used in the dispute by either party unless the question was jointly submitted by both parties with an acknowledgement by both parties that the question correctly and accurately represents the points in dispute.
All answers are given based on the Hanafi School of thought unless stated otherwise.